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What is the full taxonomic classification of the house mouse?

Kingdom Anamalia, Phylum Vertebrata, Class Mammalia, Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Subfamily Murinae, Mus musculus


What is the diploid chromosome number of mice?



Specific genes can be visualized on chromosomes by what cytogenetic technique?

FISH - fluorescent in situ hybridization


Which genes are responsible for rejection of foreign skin grafts within 10-20 days, and where are these genes located in the mouse?

Major histocompatibility comples (MHC, H2) located on chromosome 17


Which genes are responsible for delayed graft rejection and where are they located in the mouse?

Minor histocompatibility complex (H) located throughout the genome


Other than graft rejection, what are the other functions of the H2 complex?

Cell-cell interactions in primary immune response and level of response to a given antigen. Immune-mediated responses to infectious agents such as viruses and complement activity.


What is the definition of an inbred strain of mouse?

Brother-sister matings for more than 20 generations. Not considered completely inbred until after 40 generations.


What is the primary research use of wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus castaneus and Mus spretus?

Genetic mapping due to large numbers of polymorphic differences from standard inbred laboratory mice.


What is the definition of a coisogenic inbred strain?

A mutation of interest occurred within that strain.


How can a coisogenic strain be perpetuated?

a) brother-sister matings within strain of origin; b) backcross or cross-intercross system within strain of origin; c) brother -sister mating with heterozygosity forced by back- or intercrosses; d) brother-sister mating between homozygotes


What is congenic?

When the mutation of inteest was transferred from another stock or strain by repeated backcrossings


How can a congenic strain be perpetuated?

a) brother-sister matings within strain of origin after 10-12 generations of backcrossing with periodic backcrosses to background strain; b) backcross or cross-intercross system within strain of origin; c) brother-sister mating with heterozygosity forced by back- or intercrosses; d) brother-sister mating between homozygotes


In a random bred stock population of 25 breeding pairs, heterozygosity will ____________ at _______ per generation with standard randomization techniques?

decrease; 1%


A common random breeding program called circular pair mating system involves each pair mating how many times?



What is a recombinant inbred strain?

Sets of inbred strains developed by single pair random matings of mice from an F2 generation created by crossing mice of two inbred strains


How are recombinant inbred strains perpetuated?

brother-sister matings for >20 generations to obtain homozygosity; this can take up to 7 years to produce


What is the main general research purpose of recombinant inbred strains?

Mapping phenotypic or quantitative traits that differ between progenitor strains


What is a recombinant congenic strain?

Sets of inbred strains derived in a similar manner to RI strains except that one or more backcrosses to one parental strain (background strain) are made after the F1 generation, before inbreeding has begun. The other parental strain is designated the donor strain. The proportion of background and donor genomes is determined by the number of backcrosses preceding inbreeding.


What is an advanced intercross line (AIL)?

Made by producing an F2 generation between two inbred strains and then, in each subsequent generation, intercrossing mice but avoiding sibling matings. The purpose is to increase the possibility of recombination between tightly linked genes.


Describe DBA/2J

Inbred strain; named for coat color genes dilute (d), brown (b), and nonagouti (a); second of two sublines separated before 20 generations of sib matings and is the subline maintained at Jackson Labs (J)


Describe Hsd:ICR

ICR outbred stock maintained at Harland


Describe C3H/HeSn-ash/+

coisogenic segregating inbred mutant strain carrying the ashen (ash) mutation, which arose on C3H/HeSn


Describe AKR.B6-H2b

congenic inbred strain in which the b haplotype at the H2 complex was transferred from C57BL/6J (B6) to the AKR background


Describe BXD-1/Ty

RI strain number 1 in a set of RI strains derived from a C57BL/6J (B) female mated to a DBA/2J (D) male and made by Taylor (Ty)


Describe CcS1

Recombinant congenic strain number 1 in a set made by crossing the BALB/c ? and STS (S) strains, backcrossing N4 times to BALB/c and then inbreeding as with RI strains


How much feed do mice typically consume per day?

3-5 g/day


How much water do adult mice typically consume per day?

6-7 ml/day


How does a mouse repond to cold exposure?

Non-shivering thermogenesis (activated by norepinephrine)


What is the biological half-time of water for mouse?

1.1 days, more rapid for larger mammals


T/F Mice have no sweat glands



What is the thermoneutral zone for mice?

approximately 29.6-30.5 C, narrower for any other mammal measured


T/F Mice reared in the thermoneutral zone grow faster, have larger litters, and more viable pups than those reared outside that range

FALSE. Optimal range for larger litters, growing faster, and more viable pups is 21-25 C. Thermoneitrality should not be equated with comfort or physiological economy.


What is the oxygen consumption of a typical mouse at rest?

3.5 ml O2/g/hr


What physiological and anatomical mechanisms allow the mouse to accommodate having such a high metabolic rate?

a) high alveolar PO2; b) rapid respiratory rate; c) short air passage; d) moderately high RBC; e) high RBC hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase concentrations; f) high O2 blood capacity; g) slight shift in O2-dissociation curve enabling O2 to be unloaded in the tissue capillaries at high PO2; h) more pronounced Bohr effect (hemoglobin affinity for O2 with changes in pH); i) high capillary density; j) high blood glucose concentrations


T/F. Antigenic cross-reactivity exists between Mycoplasma pulmonic, M. arthriditis, M. neurolyticum, and M. collis.



Which two of the mouse Mycoplasma species share greatest antigenic cross-reactivity?

M. pulmonis and M. arthriditis


Describe the cellular morphology and staining characteristics of My. pulmonis.

Pleomorphic, G-, lacks cell wall, single outer limiting membrane.
Causes Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis (MRM).


T/F. Asymptomatic infection with MRM is rare.

False. (p. 81)


What are all the possible clinical signs of MRM, and what signs are most prominent?

Suppurative rhinitis, otitis media, chronic pneumonia, inactivity, weight loss, ruffled hair coat.
Chattering and dyspnea are most prominent due to rhinitis and purulent exudate in nasal passages. (p 81)
Otitis media may cause a head tilt.
Flaccid paralysis is rare but possible if suppurative inflammation in brain and spinal cord.


Route of transmission of M. pulmonis?

Inhalation. Can occur in suckling and adult mice. Considered highly contagious. (p 81)


T/F. In utero infection of rats/mice/both is seen in M. pulmonis.

Rats only. (p 81)


What factors may increase susceptibility to MRM?

Concomitant infection with Sendai virus or mouse corona virus.
Elevated ammonia concentrations.


What species does M. pulmonis infect? Which ones are significant reservoirs for mice?

Rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits.
Only rats are significant reservoirs for mice ( p 81).


Where does M. pulmonis colonize?

Is an extracellular organism.
Colonizes apical cell membranes of respiratory epithelium.
Anywhere from anterior nasal passages to alveoli.
(may be mediated by surface glycoproteins) p 81


What is the mechanism of cellular pathology with M. pulmonis?

Disrupted mucociliary transport.
Competition for CHO and nucleic acids and/or release of toxic substances like peroxides.
Ciliostasis, reduction in cilia number, and ultra structural changes lead to cell death. p 81


T/F. Survivors of severe infection of M. pulmonis may develop chronic bronchopneumonia with bronchiectasis and spread to other mice.

p 81


What phenotypic measure is the major determinant of disease outcome in MRM?

Bactericidal efficiency of alveolar macrophages.


Which strain likely has the greatest bactericidal efficiency of alveolar macrophages?
a) BALB/c
b) C3H
c) DBA/2
d) C57BL
e) AKR

d) C57BL

p 81


Which strains are resistant to pathogenic infection of M. pulmonis?
a) BALB/c
b) C57BL
c) DBA/2
d) C3H
e) AKR

b) C57BL
p 81


What methods should be employed to diagnose and speciate Mycoplasma infections in mice?

Should be a combination of methods.
ELISA, radioimmunosorbent assay, and solid-phase radioimmunoassay are sensitive but will not differentiate M. pulmonis and M. arthriditis. Also, some mice may have poor antibody response, making serology insufficient as a sole means.
URT should be cultured by lavaging with buffered saline or Mycoplasma broth. But, Mycoplasma difficult to grow. Speciation can be accomplished by immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase staining or growth inhibition.
PCR also sensitive and accurate for both living mice and paraffin-embedded tissue.
p 81-82


Differential diagnoses for bronchopneumonia in mice? How differentiate?

MRM, CAR Bacillus, Sendai Virus
Silver stain may reveal CAR bacilli adherent to respiratory epithelium.
Sendai virus more easily detected by serology and immunohistochemistry.
Other causes of respiratory infection in mice: PVM, Corynebacteriosis, and in immunodeficient mice, Pneumocystis carinii
p 82


T/F. Immunity to MRM cannot be effectively transferred with immune cells.

p 82


T/F. Athymic and thymectomized mice are more susceptible to M. pulmonis pneumonia than immunocompetent mice.

Classic cellular immunity does not appear to play a major role in M. pulmonis infection in mice.
p 82


T/F. Treatment with tetracycline effectively eliminates M. pulmonis.

Tetracyclines will suppress disease but not eliminate infection.
p 82


How does M. pulmonis affect immunological responsiveness?

Mitogenic for T and B lymphocytes. Increases NK cell activity.


What is one of the most important complications of Mycoplasma infections?

Contamination of cell lines and transplantable tumors.
p 82


Where can Mycoplasma collis be found and what are the typical clinical signs?

Has been isolated from genital tract.
Has not been shown to cause natural disease.
p 83


Two primary infectious rule outs for a rolling mouse. How to quickly make a presumptive diagnosis?

Mycoplasma neurolyticum, Pseudomonas otitis
If no experimental manipulation, then PDx is Pseudomonas since neurological disease with M. neurolyticum has only been induced experimentally. Characteristic signs include spasmodic hyper extension of head, raising of one foreleg, followed by rolling.
p 83