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Name the gold standard "background strain" for genetically engineered mice created by homologous recombination.



True or False: It is normal to find melanin pigment in the meninges of B6 mice.


TRUE - found in heart valves, splenic capsule and trabeculae, meninges, cerebral vessels, Harderian glands, and parathyroid glands



What are common spontaneous diseases in B6 mice?



  • hydrocephalus
  • hippocampal neurodegeneration
  • microphthalmia
  • anophthalmia
  • age-related cochlear degeneration with hearing loss
  • malocclusion



Name the most common B6 neoplasms.

  • lymphoma
  • hemangiosarcoma
  • pituitary adenoma


True or False: Barbering is common in B6 mice



Describe BALB/c susceptibility to spontaneous amyloidosis.

Thet are resistant.


What are common tumors in BALB/c mice?


  • Lung adenoma
  • Lymphoma
  • Harderian gland tumors
  • Adrenal adenomas 
  • Myoepitheliomas of salivary, preputial, and other exocrine glands

PB, p5


Name the ocular problems commonly encountered in BALB/c mice.

  • corneal opacitites
  • conjunctivitis
  • blepharitis
  • periorbital abscesses


True or False: BALB/c mice develop age-related hearing loss



Name the mutation that causes C3H/He mice to be blind



C3H/He mice are susceptible to what virally induced tumor?

Exogenous murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced mammary tumors

They also develop a high incidence of mammry neoplasia later in life due to endogenous MMTV


C3H/He mice are prone to developing what spontaneous conditions? 

  • focal myocardial and skeletal mineralization and myocardial degeneration
  • alopecia areata as they age


Embryonic stem cells are most frequently obtained from which strain?



What are some common congenital or spontaneous conditions in 129 mice?

  • hypocallosity
  • pulmonary proteinosis and epithelial hyalinosis
  • megaesophagus
  • blepharitis, conjunctivitis


FVB/N mice are prone to what congenital or spontaneous conditions.

  • blind due to same homozygous recessive mutation as in C3H/He:  Pde6brd1 
  • seizures
  • persistent mammry hyperplasia
  • hyperplasia or adenoma of prolactin-secreting cells in anterior pituitary (but mammry tumors are rare)


Why is it erroneous to call outbred Swiss mice "wildtype" for comparison to inbred mice?

They were derived from a small gene pool of founder animals that were inbred for generations before being outbred.


Swiss mice are prone to what congenital or spontaneous conditions and neoplasms?

  • many Swiss stocks have retinal degeneration
  • amyloidosis
  • lymphomas
  • pulmonary adenomas
  • liver tumors
  • pituitary adenomas
  • hemangiomas/sarcomas


True or False: Mouse hair growth occurs in a cyclic wave, beginning cranially and progressing caudally



The predominant circulating leukocyte in mice is __________

the lymphocyte


Male mice have _______ granulocyte counts than female mice 



Which is NOT true regarding mouse granulocytes?

a. Granulocytes in tissue have ring-shaped nuclei

b. Healthy mice tend to have a fairly high number of circulating band cells

c. Circulating basophils are extremely rare

d. The spleen in a major hematopoietic organ throughout life

b is false - bands are rare


Which of the following is true regarding the mouse GI system?

a. Female mice have larger submandibular salivary glands than male mice

b. Cheek teeth grow continuously throughout life

c. GALT is present in the small intestine only

d. Paneth cells occupy crypt bases in the SI and have eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules



The submandibular salivary glands of sexualy mature males is about twice as large as females.  The parotid salivary glands are also larger.  Male submandibular glands have increased secretory granules in the cytoplasm of serous cells.  These glands undergo similar masculinization in pregnant and lactating females.

PB, p 8



Which of the following is NOT true in the intestine of neonatal mice?

a. Maternally derived antibody uptake ceases 24 hours after birth

b. Small intestinal enterocytes are vacuolated and may contain eosinophillic inclusions

c. Intestinal cell turnover kinetics are slow

d. The bowel has shallow crypts of Leiberkuhn populated with mitotically inactive stem cells

a is false

In addition to in utero transfer of IgG, maternally derived antibody uptake continues until about 2 weeks of age through IgG-specific receptors in the small intestine


The mouse liver

a. Has two lobes

b. Is a site of hematopoiesis

c. Frequently exhibits polyploidy in liver cells

d. Both b and c

e. All of the above


The liver of mice has variable lobation.


Mice have what type of placentation? 



Sexual dimorphic features in male mice include:

a. Larger kidneys

b. Cuboidal epithelium lining Bowman's capsule

c. Larger renal cortices

d. Larger cells in proximal convoluted tubules

e. All of the above



T/F.  Proteinuria is normal in mice



Which is NOT true regarding the mouse lymphoid system?

a. The thymus involutes in adult mice

b. Thymic tissue can occur in thyroid and parathyroid glands

c. Hematopoiesis occurs in the splenic red pulp throughout life

d. Melanosis of the splenic capsule is common in melanotic strains of mice and must be differentiated from hemosiderin

e. Germinal centers are not well discerned



Mice are fully immunocompetent at what age?


6-12 weeks

Generally immunocompentent at weaning, but not fully so until 6-12 weeks.



What is the Th1-Th2 polarized T cell response in mice?

BALB/c mice tend to respond to antigenic stimuli with a Th2 skewed response, whereas B6 mice respond with a Th1 skewed response


Nude mice are deficient in

a. B cells

b. T cells

c. B and T cells

d. NK cells



The H-2 complex is located on which chromosome?



How many lung lobes do mice have? 

4 lobes on the right, 1 on the left


True or False: Cardiac muscle surrounds the major pulmonary veins in mice



The X zone of the adrenal cortex:

a. Is comprised of basophilic cells arising at 10 days of age

b. Disappears in males at puberty and with 1st pregnancy in females

c. Undergoes marked vacuolation in males but not in females

d. A and b

e. All of the above


It undergoes marked vacuolation in females but not males


True or False: Virgin female mice may be induced to lactate by the presence of other female nursing liters.



Mouse adenoviruses are what type?

Nonenveloped DNA viruses


Naturally occurring MAdV-1 lesions in the mouse include

a. Necrosis in spleen

b. Hemorrhagic encephalitits

c. Enteritis

d. All of the above

e. None of the above



MAdV-2 is principally

a. Neurotropic

b. Lymphotrophic

c. Enterotropic

d. None of the above



Pathognomonic lesions with MAdV-2 infection?

intranuclear inclusion bodies in villus epithelium


True or False: Antibodies to MAdV-2 may cross react with MAdV-1, therefore MAdV-2 should be the target in serological testing.



MCMV shows tropism for which organ?

salivary gland

Note IN inclusions in ductal epithelial cells


How is MCMV transmitted?

oronasally by direct contact


True or False: Neonates of all strains are universally susceptible to severe disease with MCMV



Which is NOT true regarding MCMV?

a. NK cells are important for viral clearance (except salivary gland)

b. Latency is an important feature of the virus

c. Overt disease is common in naturally infected mice

d. Eosinophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies may be present, especially in the salivary gland


  • Beige mice have significantly impaired ability to clear MCMV due to decreased NK activity


MCMV has immunosuppressive effects due to aberrations of

a. B cells

b. T cells

c. Macrophages

d. Interferon

e. All of the above



Mouse thymic virus (MTV) infects ________ as its primary target.

a. Thymus

b. Small intestine

c. Spleen

d. Salivary gland



True or False: Diagnosis of MTV in infant mice is made by confirmation of thymic necrosis with intranuclear inclusions.



Polyoma virus is a member of what family? 





  • related to K virus, SV-40, BK, JC, hamster polyoma virus, rat polyoma virus, rabbit kidney vacuolating virus
  • shed in urine
  • environmentally stable but not under laboratory husbandry conditions
  • most efficiently acquired intranasally





Polyoma virus is primarily studied for its ____________

oncogenic activity


Where is MPyV shed?

How is it acquired, and by what age group?

What is the path of in the body?


Shed in urine

Oronasal inoculation in neonatal mice

Replication ensues in nasal mucosa, submaxillary salivary glands, lungs, followed by dissemination to multiple organs including kidneys.  Mortality can be high at this stage.



Polyoma virus infection in nude mice has been shown to cause

a. Paralysis

b. Multisystemic wasting syndrome

c. Bone and uterine tumors

d. B and c

e. All of the above





True or False: K-virus is primarily of historical significance.



Which is NOT true about K virus?

a. Pulmonary lesions are seen in oronasally inoculated neonatal mice

b. Infection in nude mice is similar to neonatal mice

c. Adult mice completely clear the virus within a few days

d. Inclusions may be found in renal tubular epithelial cells



True or False: Seroconversion is the most frequent evidence of infection with parvoviruses.



MVM may cause:

a. Cerebellar hypoplasia

b. Leukopenia in SCID mice

c. Runting

d. A and b

e. All of the above



Which is true regarding ectromelia virus?

a. Virulence does not vary between strains

b. Ectromelia virus is highly contagious

c. The primary route of infection is through cutaneous trauma

d. Vertical transmission is common



Which strains are resistant to ectromelia? Which are sensitive?


Resistant:  B6 & AKR - but allow inefficient virus replication and excretion

Sensitive:  C3H, A, DBA, SWR, CBA, BALB/c - die acutely with minimal opportunity for virus excretion



Describe the ectromelia model of infection 

cutaneous invasion a spread to regional lymph nodes and primary viremia with replication in spleen and liver a secondary viremia with replication in other organs an increase in lesions including a rash 


True or False:  Immunocompentent mice generally recover from infection but act as carriers 

FALSE – they do not act as carriers 


Lesions consistent with ectromelia may include
a. Skin lesions with ballooning of epithelial cells and inclusions
b. Intestinal hemorrhage
c. Cutaneous erythema
d. Dry gangrene of extremities
e. All of the above



 True or False:  The complex of multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis, and epithelial lesions bearing typical inclusions is pathognomonic for ectromelia. 



True or False:   Serology is most useful during the early stages of ectromelia virus infection.


Serology is a useful diagnostic adjunct in recovered mice and is an important surveillance tool for monitoring mouse population.  But, is of little value during early stages of infection.


Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about LCMV infection?
a. It is a zoonotic disease
b. The lesion, lymphocytic choriomeningitis is common in natural infection
c. Adult rats seems to refractory to natural infection
d. LCMV is a frequent contaminant of biological material
e. It has a wide host range



The natural reservoir host for LCMV is:


Mus musculus


Which of the following is TRUE regarding LCMV transmission?
a. Direct contact and aerosol through nasal secretion, urine, saliva
b. Vertical transmission
c. Infected ova prior to implantation
d. All of the above



Which of the following statements is TRUE about fetal infection?
a. Develop cytolytic infection in all fetal cells
b. Selective LCMV tolerance with depletion of LCMV-responsive CD8 cells
c. Develop neutralizing antibodies against LCMV
d. Develop a generalized immune tolerance that extends throughout the life



True or False:  LCMV is the only virus of mice that will kill adults but not neonates when inoculated intracereberally. 



Which of the following LCMV infected animals create the LEAST potential for zoonotic infection in humans
a. Hamsters
b. Immunodeficient mice
c. Immunocompetent mice
d. In utero-infected mice



All are true about LDV, EXCEPT:
a. LDV is the most frequent contaminate of murine transplant tumors
b. Has a wide host range.  
c. Has restricted cell tropism for a specific subset of macrophages and in some case neural tissues
d. No clinical signs or lesions have been seen in naturally infected mice

b - highly specific to mice


Which of the following is the PRIMARY means of natural transmission of LDV?
a. Fighting
b. Sexual
c. Direct contact
d. In utero



Which of the following IS NOT considered research significance of LDV?
a. Alter macrophage function
b. Modulation of T cell response
c. High mortality rate of infected mice
d. Contamination of transplantable tumors



How LDV can be eliminated from the contaminated cell lines?
a. By passage in athymic rats
b. By in vitro growth
c. B only
d. And B



True or False:  Plasma LDH level , the gold standard for LDV diagnosis, has given way to PCR.



All is true for MHV EXCEPT:
a. MHV is rare in wild M.m. domesticus populations
b. There is no evidence of MHV infection from any source except mice and mouse products
c. MHV strains are divided into two biologically distinct group, respiratory and enterotropic
d. The outcome of the MHV infection depends on mouse age, strain, immune status and maternal antibodies

a - it is highly prevalent


Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the respiratory strain?
a. Replicate in nasal mucosa
b. Are polytropic in nature
c. Mice under 2 weeks and immunocompromised mice are more susceptible
d. SJL mice are more susceptible than BALB/c mice
e. There are no persistence or carrier state after 3-4 wk
f. After 5-7 days,  immune mediated clearance of virus begins
g. The prototypes strains are MHV-JHM, MHV-A59, MHV-S and MHV-3

d - the reverse is true


Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding enterotropic strain?
a. Selective tropism for intestinal mucosal epithelium, minimal to no dissemination to other organs
b. All ages and strain of mice are susceptible to enterotrpic strain
c. SJL mice is the only resistant strain
d. Disease occurs only in infant mice due to their intestinal mucosal proliferative kinetics
e. Infection of neonatal mice causes necrotizing enterocolitis and death within 48 hrs

c.  SJL mice are susceptible to enterotropic MHV and resistant to polytropic MHV


Which of these will have persistent infection with virus shedding with MHV?
a. Nude mice
b. SCID mice
c. Some transgenic without known immune dysfunction
d. All the above



No persistent carrier state seems to occur in recovered, immunocompetent mice.



Immunity to MHV, all true EXCEPT:
a. Host immunity to MHV is strongly MHV strain-specific
b. Recovery from enterotropic MHV requires functional T cells
c. Maternal protection against enterotropic MHV is mediated through luminal whey containing IgA and IgG
d. Maternal protection against polytropic is mediated through serum IgG that is passed exclusively in utero to the fetus 


d - this is true but not exclusively - also post-natally through intestinal IgG receptors

PB, p 32



Diagnosis of MHV:  Which statements is FALSE?
a. Nude mouse cannot develop antibody to MHV
b. PCR can be used to detect MHV in feces
c. PCR can be used to detect MHV in tissues
d. Serology is the most  useful method for surveillance and retrospective infection

a.  nude mouse can develop antibodies but the response is  unpredictable


Significance in research: Which statements is True?
a. MHV can cause host  immunomodulation
b. MHV can cryptically infect embryonic stem cells in vitro without cytopathic effect
c. a and b 
d. None of the above



Which of the following is FALSE about PVM?
a. Clinical disease caused by natural infection reported both in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.
b. PVM is labile with a low degree of contagion
c. Require close contact for transmission
d. Interspecies transmission may occur to or from laboratory rats and cotton rats

a. Not in the immunocompetent mice


PVM Pathology: Which of the following is TRUE?
a. Gross lesions are absent in natural infections of immunocompetent mice
b. Gross lesions in immunodeficient mice are not limited to respiratory tract
c. In immunodefecient  the disease is normally acute and death occurs shortly after infection
d. The gross lesion in immunodeficient mice consist of supportive interstitial pneumonia



What strains and ages are susceptible to Sendai virus?  What strains are resistant?

infant and aged mice, and strains 129, DBA, C3H are highly susceptible to severe +/- lethal disease

B6, AKR, SJL are highly resistant


Which of the following is UNTRUE about SeV?
a. Highly contagious and contact-transmitted by aerosol.
b. Humans seroconvert to Sendai due to infection with related parainfluenza virus 1
c. SeV is also  infectious to laboratory rats and hamsters
d. SeV is resistant in the environment and readily transmitted by  fomites
e. The cell mediated immune response that clears the infection also generates disease

d - SV is labile


Describe Sendai virus tropism.

SV infects respiratory epithelium in nose, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and epithelium of middle ear.  It also spreads to type II  alveolar cells.

Cellular receptors for SV are widely distributed in many tissues, but respiratory tropism is dictates by the dependence of the virus to bud apically from respiratory epithelium and depend upon respiratory proteases to cleave its fusion glycoprotein into a biologically active form.

PB, p. 37


Which of the following can be used to differentiate Sendai infection from PVM in immunodeficient mice?
a. PVM causes a progressive pneumonia, unlike sendai
b. Sendai causes a wasting disease unlike PVM
c. Sendai characteristic hypertrophic and hyperplastic changes in the respiratory epithelium which is absent in PVM
d. None of the above





Which of the following are research significance of SeV?
a. Overt adult disease and mortality in susceptible strains and immunodeficient mice
b. Delay wound healing
c. Fetal death
d. Squamous metaplasia misconstrued as neoplasia
e. All of the above



Which of the following is FALSE about MEV
a. Virus excretion in feces is prolong and intermittent
b. Transmission is inefficient immunocompetent mice
c. MEV may transfer in utero
d. Maternal antibody are protective
e. Can be inadvertent contaminant of clinical specimen of mouse origin



Differential diagnoses for neurologic disease in mice?

trauma, neoplasia, otitis, MHV, MEV, LDV in immunodeficient C58 or AKR, polyoma virus


True or False:  The official name for the mouse reovirus is Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV). 

TRUE - genus Orthoreovirus


True or False:  Reovirus has been documented in every mammalian species tested. 



118. Which of the following is TRUE about Reovirus infection?

a. Seroconversion reflects exposure from any of the serotypes
b. Transmission occur primarily by direct contact among young mice
c. All ages of mice susceptible to the experimental disease but only infected neonate can develop disease
d. The method of transmission is the orofecal route
e. Reoviruses frequently contaminate transplantable tumors
f. All of the above



Which of the following is FALSE about Reovirus disease?
a. Pups born to immune dams do not develop disease.
b. The most significant microscopic lesion is acute diffuse encephalitis that has a vascular distribution
c. The clinical manifestation in neonates include matted hair due to steatorrhea (oily hair effect)
d. The pathological lesion can be seen both in immune (passive immunity) and naïve neonates

d, lesions only in infant mice from colonies previously unexposed to reovirus


Which of the following is TRUE about EDIM?
a. Highly contagious
b. Its official name is Rotavirus A (RV-A)
c. In enzootic colonies infants are protected by maternal IgA
d. All of the above



What is the tropism of rotavirus?

Selectively infects terminally differentiated enterocytes of villi of surface mucosa of small intestine and large intestine respectively.

These cells are most plentiful in the neonatal bowel, and iminish as intestinaltract matures and acquires microflora.


True or False:  EDIM is limited to mice less than 2 weeks old.  



True or False:  Regardless of age at infection, recovery from EDIM diarrhea occurs at 14-17 d of age, with complete recovery from infection.



Which of the following is TRUE regarding mouse susceptibility to EDIM infection?
a. There are no strain related susceptibility to infection
b. BALB/c mice are resistant to EDIM
c. B6 mice are resistant to disease
d. B and c

c - BALB/c are susceptible


True or False:  There is persistent shedding of EDIM in B-cell deficient and SCID mice. 



Which of the following is FALSE regarding EDIM infection?
a. Infants can be runted and potbellied
b. Steatorrhea with oily hair may be also apparent
c. The bowel is flaccid and distended with fluid and gas
d. Mice stop suckling 
e. Death can occur due to fecal caking around the anus

d - infants continue suckling


Etiology, and cell type affected?

Rotavirus-A, terminally differentiated enterocytes


Differential diagnoses for EDIM?

MHV, MAdV, reovirus, Salmonellosis, Tyzzer's


True or False:  Certain mice diet can produce false-positive results using antigen detection method (rotavirus diagnostic kits). 



Taxonomy of mouse norovirus

family Calciviridae, genus Norovirus


Based on serological data from the USA and Canada, what is the percentage of MNV-1 positive in laboratory mice?




What mouse strains are clinically affected by MNV-1?

MNV-1 is lethal in any strains with STAT1 deficiency.  This includes STAT1 null (intact B and T cells), RAG null (lacking B and T cells), PKR null (lacking RNA dependent protein kinase.

Also lethal in interferon alpha/beta/gamma receptor null mice.

RAG1, RAG2, PKR null with functional STAT1 results in no clinical disease.


In susceptible strains, what is the tropism of MNV-1?


macrophages and dendritic cells


True or False:  MNV is the only known norovirus that can be grown in vitro. 



135. What percentage of the mouse genome is occupied by retroelements?