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1

What are the two distinctive features of fungi

Chitin in the cell walls
Ergosterol in the membranes

2

What is Dimorphism of fungi

their form changes with temperature
Molds at 26 degrees Celcius
Yeast at 37 degrees celcius

3

What are mycoses difficult diseases to diagnose and treat

the signs of their diseases are missed or misinterpreted
there are few antifungal agents, and fungi are often resistant to them

4

Are many mycoses contagious

nope, with the exception of dermatophytes, fungi found on the skin

5

How are mycoses generally acquired

inhalation, trauma, or ingestion

6

how does fungal dimorphism play into a fungus' pathogenicity

in the environment, at lower temperatures, they have mycelia composed of hyphae
in the body, warmer temperatures, they exist as yeasts

7

Why does it matter that fungi are yeasts when inside the body

because now they are invasive due to the enzymes and proteins they produce to survive in the body

8

What are the three categories of fungal diseases

1. fungal infections
2. Toxicoses
3. Allergies

9

What is a fungal infection

the most common fungal disease, caused by a true pathogen, or an opportunistic one, in the body

10

What is a Toxicoses

When you eat poisonous mushrooms

11

When do you get fungal allergies

most often results when inhalation of fungal spores occurs

12

What are the four locations you can get a fungal infection

1. superficial - on the skin - no inflammation
2. cutaneus - on the skin, hair or nails
3. subcutaneos - below skin - traumatic injury
4. deep or systemic - in organs or bone (difficult to diagnose and treat)

13

What are the 4 systemic pathogenic, dimorphic fungi

1. Blastomyces
2. coccidioides
3. Histoplasma
4. paracoccidioides

14

How are the 4 systemic pathogens introduced into the body

inhalation

15

where do the systemic fungal infections begin, and how do they spread

they begin in the lungs and spread via the blood to the rest of the body

16

besides blastomyces, coccidioides, histoplasma, and paracoccidioides. how do other fungal infections occur

by opportunistic fungi, that are often commensals, that take advantage of weaknesses in a host's defense

17

What makes you most likely to get an opportunistic fungal infection

having a compromised immune system

18

What is the causative agent of blastomycosis

blastomyces dermatitidis

19

where is blastomycosis common

south east US and canada

20

how does one contract blastomycosis

inhalation of dust with the fungal spores being carried into the lungs

21

what is the most common type of blastomycosis

pulmonary blastomycosis

22

What are the problems associated with pulmonary blastomycosis

pulmonary lesions that begin asymptomatic
granulomatus reaction with marked fibrosis
can become chronic pneumonia

23

Where can pulmonary blastomycosis disseminate to

the skin, bone, or in males the prostate

24

what can blastomycosis cause in AIDS patients

meningitis

25

how is blastomycosis treated

amphotercin B

26

What is the common name for coccidioidomycosis

valley fever

27

where do you find coccidiodomycosis

in the southwestern US, in desert soil, mines, rodent burrows, and archealogical remains

28

how does a human contract coccidiodomycosis

inhalation of dust that carries the arthrospores (asexual spores) into the lungs

29

what is the causitive agent of valley fever

coccidioides immitis

30

what happens to the coccidioides immitis arthrospores once in the lungs

they germinate into spherules that in turn produce more spores that are released into surrounding tissue