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1

What are the Gram-negative pathogens we study

1. Neisseria species
2. Escherichia Coli
3. Shigella species
4. Salmonella species
5. Klebsiella pneumoniae
6. Yersina species
7. Bordetella pertussis
8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
9. Francisella tularenesis
10. Legionella pneumophila

2

What group is the largest group of human pathogens and why

Gram-negative bacteria, in part because of the Lipid A in their cell wall

3

What does Lipid A trigger in humans

Fever, vasodilation, inflammation, shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (blood clots in blood vessels)

4

What are the three things that any gram-negative bacteria needs to cause disease or death in humans

1. breach the skin or mucus membranes
2. grow at 37 degrees celcius
3. evade the immune system

5

What is the only Gram-negative Cocci that regularly causes diseases in humans

Neisseria

6

What do Neisseria usually look like

gram-negative diplococci, in pairs, with flattened sides

7

are neisseria aerobic or anaerobic

aerobic

8

What are the two pathogenic types of neisseria

neisseria gonorrhea
neisseria meningitidis

9

neisseria are pyogenic, or pyrogenic

pyogenic (pus creating)

10

What is the isolation media used for neisseria

chocolate agar, + increased CO2

11

What is the major virulence factor of neisseria gonorrhea

the attachment pili

12

what is the most common reportable disease is the US

gonorrhea

13

What happens to males with gonorrhea

infection of the anterior urethra = acute inflammation
pus discharge and painful urination
can cause rectal or pharyngeal infections also

14

What happens to females with gonorrhea

infection of vaginal-cervical junction
80% of infections are asymptomatic
may cause salpingitis
may spread to lower abdomen and cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

15

What is salpingitis

a gonorrhea infection of the fallopain tubes (20% sterility rate)

16

What happens to children with gonorrhea

as they pass through the birth canal they can contrat gonococcal opthalmia neonarum (eye infection)

17

What is done to prevent gonococcal opthalmia neonarum

antibiotic ointments placed in the eyes of newborns

18

What is neisseria gonorrhea transmitted

sexual contact

19

which age group has the highest incidence of neisseria gonorrhea

20-24

20

How is gonorrhea diagnosed

by the symptoms, and observation of the organisms in the pus

21

What is the treatment for gonorrhea

used to be penicillin, but not it has 50% resistance
now it is cephalosporin + tetracycline

22

how is gonorrhea prevented

controlling sexual behavior

23

Where can you find neisseria meningitidis

only in humans (normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract)

24

What is the problem with neisseria meningitidis

when the bacteria gets in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid it becomes life threatening meningitis

25

neisseria meningitidis is the most common cause of meningitis in individuals _____

under 20

26

How is neisseria meningitidis transmitted
how How

respiratory droplets among people living in close contact (dorms and barracks)

27

What are the two diseases associated with neisseria meningitidis

meningococcal meningitis
meningococcal septicemia

28

how quickly can meningococcal meningitis go from initial symptoms to death

6 hours

29

what is meningococcal septicemia

blood poisoning by neisseria meningitidis. produces blood coagulation and the formation of minute hemorrhagic lesions.

30

What are the two virulence factors of neisseria meningitidis

the capsule and the endotoxin