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Flashcards in Infection Control (complete) Deck (64)
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1

Which are ways that infection may spread in a dental clinic

1. airborne organisms
2. improper sterilization
3. Direct contact
4. Indirect contact

2

According to Spauldings classifications, When is an instrument needing critical disinfection? and what is the process of disinfection

Critical is when equipment has entered sterile tissues, including the vascular system
They need cleaning followed by sterilization

3

According to Spauldings classifications, When is an instrument needing Semi-critical disinfection? and what is the process of disinfection

Semi-critical is when equipment comes into contact with non-intact skin or mucus membranes, but hasn't penetrated them
They need cleaning, with high level disinfection as a minimum. (sterilization is preferred)

4

According to Spauldings classifications, When is an instrument needing non-critical disinfection? and what is the process of disinfection

Equipment that touches intact skin, or doesn't touch the patient
the need cleaning, followed by low level disinfection (some cases cleaning alone is acceptable)

5

What is sterilization

the complete absence of life

6

what is disinfection

destruction of vegetative pathogens, usually on inanimate objects

7

What does the suffix - cides mean

agents that kill

8

what does the suffix - static mean

agents which prevent growth

9

What is sepsis

bacterial contamination and growth

10

What is antiseptic

agent which destroys vegetative pathogens (usually on living tissue)

11

What is sanitation

Lowering bacterial counts to safe public health levels

12

is the death rate of microbes log linear

yes, a certain percentage of the bacteria die over time

13

what is D-value (death of microbes)

the time required to kill 90% of bacteria (1 log) at a specific temperature

14

How do log reduction and percent kill relate

for each log reduction 90% of the bacteria are killed
1 log = 90%
2 log = 99%
3 log = 99.9%
4 log = 99.99%

15

Which is better at disinfecting, sanitizing, and sterilizing: Moist heat or Dry heat

moist heat (dry heat requires longer time, and higher temperatures)

16

how does heat kill bacteria

by denaturing proteins and destroying cytoplasmic membranes

17

What are the four methods of microbial control that use moist heat

1. boiling
2. autoclaving
3. pasteurization
4. Ultra-high temperature sterilization

18

What can boiling kill in terms of microbes

vegetative cells of bacteria and fungi
viruses
protozoan trophozoites

19

What is important to consider when boiling to kill microbes

the boiling time (more time if at higher locations

20

What can't boiling kill in terms of microbes

endospores
protozoan cysts
prions

21

What is autoclaving

when pressure is applied to boiling water, which prevents the escape of steam. this leads to increased temperature (121 C)

22

Does autoclaving kill endospores

yes

23

What is historical (batch) pasteurizaition

heating up something to 63 degrees celcius for 30 minutes

24

What is flash pasteurization

72 degrees celcius for 15 seconds

25

When do you use dry heat to sterilize

when you have materials that will be damaged by moist heat, or those that can't be sterilized with moist heat

26

what is the ultimate means of sterilization

incineration

27

What is membrane filtration

running a liquid medium through a filter with specific pore sizes to trap desired organisms

28

What is ionizing radiation, and how does it kill bacteria

shooting wavelengths of less than 1nm, it disrupts bonding, and creates ions that denature DNA and other molecules

29

how effective is ionizing radiation against bacteria

it isn't very effective, it is more lethal to humans than to bacteria

30

what is non-ionizing radiation

radiation with wavelengths greater than 1 nm.