Microbial Genetics, Growth, and Metabolism (complete) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbial Genetics, Growth, and Metabolism (complete) Deck (88)
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What is horizontal gene transfer

it is the passing of genetic information between two mature cells. (instead of vertical gene transfer, which is from parent to offspring)


Do prokaryotes have a nucleus

nope, they do have what is called a nucleoid. Which is just where the prokaryote has its genetic material, but it is not confined in a membrane


What are plasmids

small segments of DNA in prokaryotes that Replicate independently of the prokaryotic chromosome


Are plasmids essential for the life of the prokaryote

no they are not essential for normal growth, reproduction, and metabolism


although plasmids aren't essential, how can they be beneficial to the prokaryote

they contain factors that help it survive


what types of factors can be found on vectors (4)

1. Fertility Factors (genes for conjugation)
2. Resistance Factors (against antimicrobials and metals)
3. Bacteriocin Factors (toxins against similar organisms)
4. Virulence factors (virulence factors against host)


Can plasmids integrate themselves into the bacterial chromosomes



What are the three ways in which bacteria can transfer genetic information

1. Transformation
2. Transduction
3. Conjugation


What is transformation (bacterial genetic information transfer)

when a bacterial cell picks up free DNA fragments and incorporates them into their chromosome


What is Transduction (bacterial genetic information transfer)

When an empty viral phage coat gets loaded with bacterial DNA, then injects it into another cell


What is conjugation

When a F+ (fertility plasmid) Cell uses a conjugation pilus to connect to another cell, then it transfers it DNA through the hollow conjugation pili


what was the finding from Griffiths experiment with rough and smooth Streptococcus Pneumoniae cells

that the new, non-virulent strain, would pick up and use the virulent DNA from the dead cells and use it to kill the mice . Proved transformation happens


What happens when an F+ cell successfully conjugates with an F- cell

the Fertility plasmid will be transferred to the F- cell, making it F+


What is an HFR cell

a cell with High Frequency of Recombination, which is a cell which has had the Fertility plasmid become integrated into its chromosome


What happens typically when an HFR conjugates with an F- cell

it only transfers a portion of the fertility plasmid, along with part of its chromosome. so the F- cell has more DNA, but not a complete Fertility plasmid so it is still F-, and is also F'


What are transposons

sequences in the prokaryotic chromosome that can break out, replicate, then reinsert themselves into different places on the chromosome.


can transposons jump to plasmids



What is VRE

vancomycin resistant Enterococcus


what is MRSA

methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus


What is a silent mutation

a swapped out base in DNA that doesn't lead to a change in the corresponding amino acid


What is a missense mutation

a swapped out base in DNA that causes a change in the corresponding amino acid


what is a nonsense mutation

a swapped out base in DNA that leads to an early stop codon


What is a frameshift mutation

either an insertion or deletion of a base pair in DNA, this causes all of the following amino acids to be altered due to the way it causes the reading frame to be shifted


What does UV light do to DNA

causes a thymine dimer, which is the creation of bonds between two thymines on the same strand of DNA, causing a bubble of sorts between the two strands


How is Recombinant DNA technology done

you get your gene of interest, and cut it out of its DNA, and place it into a plasmid, put that plasmid into bacteria, and have the bacteria produce the protein of choice


How does PCR work

you put primers in with the DNA you are running, heat it up so the double stranded DNA separates, then cool it down so the primer attaches to a single strand of DNA, and let the transcription machinery create a copy strand. then repeat over and over again.


What is the end goal of all microbial metabolism

to reproduce the organism


what is microbial growth

an increase in a population of microbes, rather than the microbes increasing in size


What are the necessary elements for microbes

carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen


What is an autotroph

an organism that has the ability to get its carbon from the CO2 in the air (green plants)