Neoplasms (Par Breast Cancer) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasms (Par Breast Cancer) Deck (120)
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1

What are some causes of a pelvic mass that aren't a gynae neoplasm

Pregnancy
Retention
Constipation
Caecal carcinoma
Others

2

What potential cause of a pelvic mass is associated with PID and pus?

Pyosalpinx

3

What potential cause of a pelvic mass occurs when a uterine tube is blocked? It is sometimes an incidental finding

Hydrosalpinx

4

Who receives cervical screening and how often?

Females
Age 25-49 every 3yr
Age 50-64 every 5yr

5

What is the procedure of cervical screening?

Visualise cervix with speculum
Brush sample at TZ for cytology

6

What is Gardasil?

HPV vaccine (against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18)

7

Who receives Gardasil?

Females in S1-S3
MSM under 45yr

8

Gardasil protects against all cervical cancer. T or F

False, doesn't protect against 30%

9

Define dyskaryosis

Abnormal cervical cells

10

What does CIN stand for?

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
(VIN vulvar)
(VaIN vaginal)
(AIN anal)

11

What is intraepithelial neoplasia (such as CIN) associated with?

HPV

12

_____ exposure causes a ______ squamous ______ resulting in cervical erosion

ACID exposure causes a PHYSIOLOGICAL squamous METAPLASIA resulting in cervical erosion

13

What change on histology indicates the present of HPV?

Koilocytosis

14

Risk factors for CIN:
-[Many/few] sexual partners
-[Young/old] age of first sexual encounter
-[Using/not using] OCP
-Smoking

Risk factors for CIN:
-MANY sexual partners
-YOUNG age of first sexual encounter
-(long term) USING OCP
-Smoking

15

How long post HPV 16/18 infection does CIN occur?

6 months to 3 years

16

Are mitotic figures raised in CIN?

Yes
(pleomorphism also present)

17

What pathology term describes the change to the cells in CIN?

Dysplasia
(also koilocytosis)

18

How many grades of CIN are there?

3

19

What is grade 1 CIN?

Abnormal cells in basal ⅓ epithelium
Nuclei slightly abnormal
Mitotic figures less than ⅓

20

What is grade 2 CIN?

Abnormal cells extend to middle ⅓

21

What is grade 3 CIN?

Abnormal cells occupy full thickness epithelium, mitosis in upper ⅓.

22

What are the S+S of CIN?

Always asymptomatic
(Detected at smear)

23

Is CIN visible to the naked eye?

No

24

What is the management of CIN?

Grade 2 or 3 = LLETZ loop diathermy
Grade 1 = low risk progression so just normal screening

25

CIN has a risk of progressing to what type of cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma

26

What is the commonest cell type in cervical cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma

27

What differentiates CIN from squamous cell carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinomas invade basement membrane

28

What part of the cervix do squamous cell carcinomas arise?

Ectocervix transition zone

29

80% of females are infected with HPV 16 or 18 but most develop immunity. T or F

True

30

How long post CIN does squamous cervical carcinoma occur?

5-20 years