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Nervous System

Anatomy of Nervous System

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and may be divided into two parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of cranial nerves, which carry impulses between the brain and neck and head, and spinal nerves, which carry messages between the spinal cord and abdomen, limbs and chest.

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Nervous System

Function of Nervous System

The nervous system forms a complex communication system allowing for the coordination of body functions and activities. As a whole, the nervous system is designed to detect changes inside and outside the body, to evaluate this sensory information, and send directions to muscle or glands in response. This system also provides for mental activities such as thought, memory and emotions.

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Nervous System

brain

contained within the cranium, the center for coordinating body activities

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Nervous System

cerebrum

largest portion of the brain, divided into left and right hemispheres. The cerebrum controls the skeletal muscle, interprets general senses (such as temp., pain, and touch), and contains centers for sight and hearing. Intellect, memory, and emotional reactions also take place in the cerebrum

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ventricles

spaces within the brain that contain fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. The cerebrospinal fluid flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord.

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cerebellum

located under the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Its function is to assist in the coordination of skeletal muscles and to maintain balancee (also called hindbrain)

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brainstem

stemlike portion of the brain that connects with the spinal cord. 10 of the 12 cranial nerves orginate in the brainstem.

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pons

literally means bridge. It connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum and brainstem

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medulla oblongata

located between the pons and spinal cord. It contains the centers that control respiration, heart rate, and the muscles in the blood vessel walls, which assist in determning blood pressure

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midbrain

most superior portion of the brainstem

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Nervous System

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

clear, odorless fluid contained in the ventricles that flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord. It cushions the brain and spinal cord from shock, transports nutrients and clears metabolic waste.

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Nervous System

spinal cord

passes through the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of the second lumbar vertebra. The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain and initiates reflex action to sensory information without input from the brain

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Nervous System

meninges

three layers of membrane that cover the brain and spinal cord

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Nervous System

dura mater

tough outer layer of the meninges

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Nervous System

arachnoid

delicate middle layer of the meninges. It is loosely attached to the pia mater by weblike fibers, which allow for the subarachnoid space.

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Nervous System

pia mater

thin inner layer of the meninges

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Nervous System

nerve

cordlike structure made up of fibers that carries impulses from one part of the body to another. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

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Nervous System

ganglion (pl. ganglia)

group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system

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Nervous System

glia

specialized cells that support and nourish nervous tissue. Some cells assist in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid and others assist with phagocytosis. they do not conduct impulses. three types of glia are astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia (also called neuroglia)

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Nervous System

neuron

a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses to carry out the function of the nervous system. Destroyed neurons cannot be replaced

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cerebell/o

cerebellum

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Nervous System

cerebr/o

cerebrum, brain

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dur/o

hard, dura mater

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encephal/o

brain

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Nervous System

gangli/o, ganglion/o

ganglion

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gli/o

glia, gluey substance

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mening/o, meningi/o

meninges

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neur/o

nerve

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Nervous System

radic/o, radicul/o, rhiz/o

nerve root (proximal end of a peripheral nerve, closest to the spinal cord)

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esthesi/o

sensation, sensitivity, feeling

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ment/o, psych/o

mind

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mon/o

one, single

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phas/o

speech

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poli/o

gray matter

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quadr/i

four

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Nervous System

-iatrist

specialist, physician (logist also means specialist)

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-iatry

treatment, specialty

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-ictal

seizure, attack

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-paresis

slight paralysis (-plegia also mean paralysis)

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cerebellitis (ser-e-bel-I-tis)

inflammation of the cerebellum

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Nervous System

cerebral thrombosis (se-RE-bral throm-BO-sis)

pertaining to the cerebrum, abnormal condition of a clot (blood clot in a blood vessel of the brain) (cause of ischemic stroke)

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duritis (du-RI-tis)

inflammation of the dura mater

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encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

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encephalpmalacia (en-sef-a-lo-ma-LA-sha)

softening of the brain

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encephalomyeloradiculitis (en-sef-a-lo-mi-e-lo-ra-dik-u-LI-tis)

inflammation of the brain spinal cord, and nerve roots.

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ganglitis

inflammation of the ganglion

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Nervous System

glioblastoma

tumor composed of developing glial tissue (most common and most malignant tumor of the brain)

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glioma

tumor composed of the glial tissue (used to describe all primary neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord)

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meningioma

tumor of the meninges (benign and slow growing)

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meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

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meningocele (me-NING-go-sel)

protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord (also called myelomeningocele)

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monoeuropathy (mon-o-nu-ROP-a-the)

disease affecting a single nerve

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neuralgia (nu-RAL-ja)

pain in the nerve

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neurasthenia (nu-ras-THE-ne-a)

nerve weakness

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neuritis

inflammation of the nerve

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neuroarthropathy

disease of nerves and joints

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neuroma

tumor made up of nerve cells

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neuropathy

disease of the nerves (peripheral)

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poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord (commonly called polio and caused by one of 3 viruses)

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polyneuritis

inflammation of many nerves

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polyneuropathy

disease of many nerves

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radiculitis

inflammarion of the nerve roots

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radiculopathy

disease of the nerve root

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rhizomeningomyelitis

inflammation of the nerve root, meninges, and spinal cord

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subdural hematoma

pertaining to below the dura mater, tumor of blood

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alzheimer disease (AD)

disease characterized by early dementia, confusion, loss of recognition of persons, or fimiliar surroundings, restlessness and impaired memory

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amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

progressive muscle atrophy caused by degeneration and scarring of neurons along the lateral columns of the spinal cord that control muscles (also called Lou Gehrig disease)

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Bell palsy

paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usually a temporary condition. signs include a sagging mouth on the affected side and nonclosure of the eyelid

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cerebral aneurysm

aneurysm in the cerebrum

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cerebral embolism

an embolus lodges in a cerebral artery, causing a sudden blockage of blood supply to the brain tissue.

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Nervous System

cerebral palsy (CP)

condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after

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dementia

cognitive impairment characterized by a loss of intellectual brain function

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epilepsy

condition characterized by recurrent seizures; a general term for abnormal electrical activity in the brain

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hydrocephalus

increase amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which can cause enlargement of the cranium in infants

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intracerebral hemorrhage

bleeding in the brain as a result of a ruptured blood vessel within the brain. symptoms vary depending on the location of the hemorrhage; hemorrhagic stroke, is frequently associated with high blood pressure

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multiple sclerosis (MS)

degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord. Signs and symptoms are variable and fluctuate over the course of the disease. More common symptoms include fatigue, balance and coordination impairments, numbness, and vision problems

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parkinson disease (PD)

chronic degenerative diseaseof the central nervous system. Signs and symptoms include resting tremors of the hands and feet, rigidity, expressionless face, and shuffling gait. It usually occurs after the age of 50 years

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sciatica

inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes; can be caused by injury, infection, arthritis, herniated disk, or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods.

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shingles

viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves (also called herpes zoster)

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stroke

occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells in the affected area of oxygen and nutrients. The cells cannot perform and may be damaged or die withing minutes. Ischemic stroke is a result of a blocked blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke is a result of bleeding. (also called cerebrovascular accident [CVA] or brain attack)

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Nervous System

subarachnoid hemorrhage

bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel just outside the brain that rapidly fills the space between the brain and skull with blood.

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transient ischemic attack (TIA)

sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time. Symptoms are similar to a stroke, but the outcome is complete recovery. TIA's are often warning signs for eventual occurence of a stroke

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ganglionectomy

excision of a ganglion (also called gangliectomy)

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neurectomy

excision of the nerve

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neurolysis

separating a nerve (from adhesion)

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neuroplasty

surgical repair of a nerve

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neurorrhaphy

suture of a nerve

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neurotomy

incision into a nerve

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radicotomy, rhizotomy

incision into a nerve root

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cerebral angiography

radiographic imaging of the blood vessels in the brain

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CT myelography

process of recording the spinal cord

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electroencephalogram (EEG)

record of the electrical impulses of the brain

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Nervous System

electroencephalograph

instrument used to record the electrical impulses of the brain

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electroencephalography

process of recording the electrical impulses of the brain

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computed tomography of the brain (CT scan)

process that includes the use of a computer to produce a series of brain tissue images at any desired depth. The procedure is painless and particularly useful in diagnosing brain tumors

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magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine

a noninvasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissues of the brain or spine through a strong magnetic field. Unlike CT scan, MRI produces images without use of radiation.

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Nervous System

positron emission tomography of the brain (PET scan)

nuclear medicine imaging technique with a radioactive substance that produces sectional imaging of the brain to examine blood flow and metabolic activity.

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Nervous System

evoked potential studies (EP studies)

a group of diagnostic tests that measure changes and responses in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stumuli.

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lumbar puncture (LP)

insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. (also called a spinal tap)

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anesthesia

without (loss of) feeling or sensation

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aphasia

condition of without speaking

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cephalalgia

pain in the head (also called cephalgia)

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cerebral

pertaining to the cerebrum

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craniocerebral

pertaining to the cranium and cerebrum

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dysphasia

condition of difficulty speaking

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encephalosclerosis

hardening of the brain

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gliocyte

glial cell

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hemiparesis

slight paralysis of half (right or left side of the body)

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hemiplegia

paralysis of half, stroke is the most common cause

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hyperesthesia

excessive sensitivity

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interictal

occuring between seizures or attacks

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intracerebral

pertaining to within the cerebrum

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mental

pertaining to the mind

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monoparesis

slight paralysis of one limb

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monoplegia

paralysis of one limb

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myelomalacia

softening of the spinal cord

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neuroid

resembling a nerve

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neurologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the nerves

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neurology

study of nerves

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panplegia

total paralysis (also spelled pamplegia

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paresthesia

abnormal sensation

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postictal

occuring after a seizure or attack

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preictal

occuring before a seizure or attack

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quadriplegia

paralysis of 4 limbs

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subdural

pertaining to below the dura mater

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afferent

conveying toward a center

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ataxia

lack of muscle coordination

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cognitive

pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reason

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coma

state of profound unconsciousness

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concsussion

injury to the brain caused by major or minor head trauma; symptoms include vertigo, headache, and possible loss o consciousness

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conscious

awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings

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convulsion

sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles; may be present during seizure

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disorientation

a state of mental confusion as to time, place or identity

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dysarthria

the inability to use speech that is distinct and connected because of a loss of muscle control after damage to the peripheral or central nervous system

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efferent

conveying away from the center

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gait

a manner or style of walking

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incoherent

unable to express one's thoughts or ideas in an orderly, intelligible manner

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paraplegia

paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord

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seizure

sudden surge of abnormal electrical activity in the brain, resulting in involuntary body movements or behaviors

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shunt

tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid

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syncope

fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum

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unconsciousness

state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, illness or drugs

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psychiatrist

a physician who studies and treats disorders of the mind

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psychiatry

specialty of the mind

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psychogenic

originating in the mind

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psychologist

specialist of the mind

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pyschology

study of the mind

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psychopathy

disease of the mind

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psychosis

abnormal condition of the mind

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psychosomatic

pertaining to the mind and body

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anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by a disturbed perception of body image.

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anxiety disorder

an emotional disorder characterized by feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness arising from anticipation of unreal or imagined danger

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attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a disorder of learning and behavioral problems characterized by marked inattention, distractability, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity

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autism

features include onset during infancy or childhood, preoccupation with subjective mental activity, inability to interact socially, and impaired communication.

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bipolar disorder

a major psychological disorder typified by a disturbance in mood. the

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bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by uncontrolled binge eating followed by pruging

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major depression

a mood disturbance characterized by feeling of sadness, despair, discouragement.

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obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

intrusive unwanted thoughts that result in the tendency to perform repetitive acts or rituals

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panic attack

sudden onset of acute anxiety, occurring unpredictably, with feelings of acute apprehension... etc

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phobia

a marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable cued by the presence or anticipation

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pica

compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or ice. Often because of iron deficiency. It that is the cause it will disappear in 1 or 2 weeks

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schizophrenia

any one of a large group of psychotic disorders with gross distortions of reality

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somatoform disorders

disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no known physical cause exists

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AD

Alzheimer disease

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ADHD

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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CNS

central nervous system

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CP

cerebral palsy

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CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

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CVA

cerebrovascular accident

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EEG

electroencephalogram

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EP studies

evoked potential studies

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LP

lumbar puncture

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MRI scan

magnetic resonance imaging scan

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MS

multiple sclerosis

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OCD

obsessive-compulsive disorder

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PD

parkinson disease

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PET scan

positron emission tomography scan

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PNS

peripheral nervous system

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PTSD

posttraumatic stress disorder

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TIA

transient ischemic attack