Immune System - Basic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immune System - Basic Deck (68)
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1
Immune System

phagocytosis

the ingestion of invading microorganisms by certain types of white blood cells (phagocytes)

2
Immune System

macrophages

""big eaters""; white blood cells that destroy invading microbes and help alert other immune cells by secreting interleukin-1 (chemical regulator)

3
Immune System

eosinophils

white blood cells that position themselves against a parasite's body and discharge destructive enzymes that damage the invader

4
Immune System

natural killer cells

cells that patrol the body and and attack virus-infected body cells and cancer cells by releasing a chemical that breaks down their target's cell membrane

5
Immune System

inflammation

injured tissues release chemicals that stimulate mast cells (connective tissue cells specialized to release histamine)

6
Immune System

histamine

promotes vasodilation which causes redness and swelling

7
Immune System

B lymphocytes

lymphocytes that produce antibodies; when stimulated, certain daughter cells (plasma cells) secrete large quantities of antibodies in the bloodstream

8
Immune System

T lymphocytes

regulate the immune response or kill certain types of cells

9
Immune System

antigens

something that elicits a specific response from a lymphocyte

10
Immune System

antibodies

an antigen-binding protein associated with B-cells

11
Immune System

memory cells

long-lived cells that provide future immunity

12
Immune System

plasma cells

secrete antibodies

13
Immune System

cytotoxic T cells

destroy foreign cells, infected body cells, or cancerous body cells; attack foreign antigen displayed with MHC-1 (responsible for rejection of tissue and organ transplants)

14
Immune System

helper T cells

stimulate immune responses (by secreting interleukin-2) from both B cells and killer T cells

15
Immune System

humoral immunity

involves activation and clonal selection of B cells, resulting in production of secreted antibodies that circulate in the blood and lymph

16
Immune System

cell-mediated immunity

involves activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells, which directly destroy certain target cells

17
Immune System

vaccination

injection of weakened or killed microbes to stimulate the development of memory cells

18
Immune System

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, caused by RNA viruses, destroys helper T cells, helper T cells make more viruses and infect more helper T cells, the immune response shuts down

19
Immune System

interferon

chemical messenger produced by virus-infected body cells and capable of stimulating resistance in uninfected cells by synthesis of anti-viral enzymes

20
Immune System

interleukin-1

chemical regulator secreted by macrophages to alert other immune cells

21
Immune System

interleukin-2

secreted by helper T cells to stimulate immune responses in B cells and killer T cells

22
Immune System

major histocompatibility complex

responsible for antigen presentation

23
Immune System

CD4

surface protein present on most helper T cells the binds class II MHC molecules

24
Immune System

CD8

surface protein present on most cytotoxic T cells that binds a class I MHC molecule to a cytoxic T cell

25
Immune System

agglutin/o

clumping

26
Immune System

bas/o

base

27
Immune System

chrom/o

color

28
Immune System

coagul/o

clotting

29
Immune System

cyt/o

cell

30
Immune System

eosin/o

rosy red