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Gene transcription

DNA replication and translation onto new proteins


Energy charge

Ratio of ATP and its metabolites (ADP, ANP, Pi) in the cell



Short-term decrement in performance capacity


NSAIDs might interfere with?

Might interfere with protein synthesis


IGF is activated and elevated by?

Activated by elevated Ca2+


True or false?
The complex process of exercise induced adaptation in skeletal muscle starts with specific molecular events that trigger an increase in protein synthesis



List 4 actions that occurred during exercise which can initiate molecular responses that generate adaptations

A) Changes occur in muscle stretch or tension
B) changes occur in intracellular calcium ion concentrations
C) changes occur in the energy charge of muscle cell
D) changes occur in the energy (redox) potential of the muscle cell


_______ serves to communicate modification of muscle cell function and is therefore translated into newly synthesized proteins to generate adaptation



Gene expressions (actions on muscle DNA that generate adaptation) seems to peak within ______ after exercise depending on the gene and type of exercise performed

4-12 hours


True or false?
Research has shown that training with low muscle glycogen might increase the potential for training adaptations do to triggered reactions such as elevated AMPK activity, but is unclear if this results in performance improvements.



A ______ can reduce or delay symptoms of overreaching, but not completely prevent them

High carbohydrate diet


List 5 potential symptoms of overtraining or overreaching

Drop in performance, washed out feeling, tired, drained, lack of energy, leg discomfort, general aches and pains in muscles and joints, sleeping problems, insomnia, headaches, decreased immunity, decreased in training capacity or intensity, inability to complete training sessions, moodiness, irritability, and or depression, loss of enthusiasm for a given sport, decreased appetite, eating problems, increased incidence of injury, reduced maximal lactate and heart rate, elevated resting and sleeping heart rate, no increase in cortisol in response to stressful doubt of exercise


Endurance training primarily increases protein synthesis related to which of the following components of the muscle tissue?
A) myofibrils
B) mitochondria
C) Sarcoplasmic reticulum
D) T – tubules

B) mitochondria


Training adaptations and skeletal muscle are ultimately generated by the cumulative effects of temporary ______ during recovery. Between repeated bouts of exercise.

A) increase in lactate and H+ concentration in muscle tissue
B) increase of calcium ion concentration in muscle cytoplasm
C) increase in gene transcription on to new proteins
D) increases in ATP concentration in muscle tissue

C) increase in gene transcription on to new proteins


Which of the following triggers during exercise can induce the hypertrophy – promoting cytopenic known as insulin like growth factor (IGF)

A) decreased intracellular calcium ion concentration
B) decreased AMPK activity
C) Low reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity
D) changes in muscle tension or stretch

D) changes in muscle tension or stretch


Changes in protein synthesis (potential adaptation) can begin within hours after exercise but have been shown to last as long as

48 hours


Which of the following compounds that influence molecular signaling (leading to adaptation) cannot function properly with high dosage antioxidants?

A) leucine
C) glycogen
D) glutamine



The use of medications such as ibuprofen, aspirin, or naproxen for muscle soreness has been shown to potentially suppress protein synthesis by interfering with which of the following processes.

A) inflammatory responses that occur after exercise
B) calcium flux back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum after exercise
C) flushing of H+ out of working tissue after exercise
D) mitochondrial energy production

A) inflammatory responses that occur after exercise


Which of the following selections is not a symptom directly related to overtraining?

A) lack of energy
B) insomnia
C) increased appetite
D) elevated resting heart rate

C) increased appetite


Which of the following is not an explicit signal or factor influencing the gross, metabolism, and creation of new muscle proteins

A) heat
B) presence of ROS
C) nutrient availability
D) pH in the muscle

A) heat


Which of the following could, in part, initiate increased AMPK activity within muscle cells which in turn can enhance energy metabolism through glucose uptake and fatty acid breakdown?

A) high ATP concentration within muscle tissue
B) high calcineurin concentration within muscle tissue
C) Low AMP concentration within muscle tissue
D) high ADP concentration within muscle tissue

D) high ADP concentration within muscle tissue