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Flashcards in Nutrients Deck (44):

Starch is?

Storage form of carbohydrate in plants.


Brandon is?

Example of an insoluble fiber food source.


Micronutrients are?

President in the diet in small quantities (<1g/day)
trace elements


protein can do what?

Protein can regulate metabolism in the form of enzymes.


Linoleic acid is?

An essential fatty acid


Glycogen is?

Storage form of carbohydrate in humans


Phytonutrients are?

Organic compounds of plants that will promote many health benefits.
Can serve as antioxidants


Fiber provides?
Recommend daily intake?

Provides low caloric yield with high satiety. Recommended daily intake is 20-35 g based on size


Functions of water are?

1) water transports nutrients and waste products
2) regulates body temperature
3) participates in biochemical reactions
4) provides lubrication
5) cleanses or protects joints and organs
6) Solvent to allow proper electrolyte dynamics


How many calories per gram in alcohol?

Alcohol provides 7 kcal per gram when consumed


What are the four categories of macronutrients?

Carbohydrates, fat, protein, water


List 3 primary functions of nutrients in the human body

Promotion of growth and development
Provision of energy
Regulation of metabolism


___________ are known to promote cardiovascular disease by elevating LDL cholesterol and reducing HDL cholesterol.

Trans fatty acid's


Cholesterol can be consumed in the diet but is always synthesized in the_____ at a rate of 0.5 to 2.9 g per day



True or false?
Proteins are comprised of numerous amino acids bound by peptide bonds.



Athletes are generally recommended to consume approximately _______ of their total energy intake in the form of healthy carbohydrates



Identify two fat-soluble vitamins that are synthesized in the body

Vitamin D
Vitamin K


List 2 common beverages that contain a class of phytonutrients known as polyphenols

Tea and wine


Which of the following types of nutrients primarily served to promote growth and development?
A. Carbohydrates
B. FatS
C. Trace elements
D. Proteins

D. Proteins


Which of the following nutrients include the essential fatty acids?

A. Saturated fatty acid's
B. Unsaturated fatty acid's
C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids
D. Cholesterol

C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Which of the following nutrients is predominantly used during high intensity training?

A. Fat's
B. Carbohydrates
C. Vitamins
D. Proteins

B. Carbohydrates


Starch is an example of which of the following classes of carbohydrate?

A. Monosaccharides
B. Disaccharides
C. Polysaccharides
D. Fiber

C. Polysaccharides


Which of the following nutrients shorten transit time of waste products and potential toxins in the intestinal the all tract?

A. Trans fatty acids
B. Insoluble fiber
C. Polypeptides
D. Oligosaccharides

B. Insoluble fiber


Which of the following forms of lipids can act as a precursor to vitamin D and hormone testosterone?

A. Medium chain fatty acids
B. Monounsaturated fat
C. Cholesterol
D. Saturated fat

C. Cholesterol


Which of the following protein sources do not contain all of the essential amino acids?

A. Wheat
B. Beef
C. Fish
D. Egg

A. Wheat


The recommended daily intake of protein for sedentary individuals is:

A. 0.82 1.2 g/kg of total body weight
B. 30% of total caloric intake
C. 1.5 to 2 g/kg of total body weight
D. 75 g - 100 g

A. 0.82 1.2 g/kg of total body weight


Which of the following is the only form of carbohydrate they can be directly oxidized in muscle tissue to a fuel exercise?

A. Sucrose
B. Glucose
C. Fructose
D. Maltodextrin

B. Glucose


Which of the following is not a mechanism by which Phytonutrients aid in maintaining health?

A. Strengthening of the immune system
B. Altering of estrogen metabolism
C. Conversion into vitamin K (carotenoids)
D. Repairing of DNA damage as a result of toxic exposure such as smoking.

C. Conversion into vitamin K (carotenoids)


What are nutrients?

Nutrients are any substance in food that provide one or more essensual functions of the body

A. Promote growth and
B. Provide energy
C. Regulate metabolism


Carbohydrates are classified...

1) monosaccharides
2) disaccharides
3) oligosaccharides
4) polysaccharides


Monosaccharides and disaccharides are considered what?

Simple sugars


Disaccharides are a combination of...

2 monosaccharides


Examples of monosaccharides are

Glucose, (the carbohydrate used for muscular work)
Fructose (commonly considered a fruit sugar)


Examples of disaccharides are?

Sucrose or (table sugar)
Lactose (commonly found in milk)


oligosaccharides are combined of?
And commonly found in?

Contains 3-9 monosaccharides combined.
This carbohydrate is Commonly found in vegetables


Polysaccharides contain?
And are found in?

10 or more monosaccharides. They are considered complex carbohydrates.
Starch, glycogen, fiber


Carbohydrates are usually classified as?

Sugars: simple carbohydrates)
Starches: The storage form of complex carbohydrates in plants
Fiber: A structural plant polysaccharide that comes in the form of cellulose, various gums and pectin


Insoluble fiber?
And commonly found in?

1) Increase bulk and soften the stool. This will shorten the transit time of toxins and waste through the intestine.
2) it is commonly found in bran, nuts and seeds, many vegetables and the skins of fruits


Soluble fiber?
And commonly found in?

Can undergo metabolic action known as fermentation in the large intestine or the Colin to yield health benefits. It has been shown to lower blood cholesterol, normalize blood glucose and help to maintain healthy bacteria in the colon.
Commonly found in legumes, oats, barley, some fruits and root veggies


Lipids functions are?

1) serve as an important energy source particularly during sleep or prolonged exercise.
2) Protect vital organs
3) supply padding for joints and other structures.
4) Aid fat-soluble vitamin absorption and storage
5) form cell membranes and hormones
6) transport numerous molecules
7) assist in temperature regulation


Lipids are classified:

Simple lipids: triglycerides (provide fuel for the body) and neutral fat (mechanical benefits like insulation, impact protection and padding
Compound lipids: phospholipids (cell membranes) and lipoproteins (serum cholesterol)
Derived lipids: fatty acid's (fuel for activity) steroid compounds (function to synthesize hormones and maintain homeostasis)


High levels of LDL cholesterol can cause?

High levels of LDL cholesterol is associated with plaque accumulation within arteries that can lead to a heart attack or stroke


Low levels of HDL cholesterol is detrimental because?

HDL functions to draw circulating LDL to the liver to be broken down for energy and other functions


What is nutrition?

The total processes of ingestion, digestion, absorption and metabolism of food.