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Flashcards in Protein Deck (33):
0

Nonessential amino acida

Are synthesized within the body

1

Arginine

Promotes growth hormone release

2

Tyrosine

Increases circulating epinephrine

3

Protein synthesis

Process of free amino acid assimilation into bodily proteins

4

Aspartate

Reduces plasma ammonia accumulation during exercise

5

Protein degradation

process of bodily protein breakdown into free amino acids

6

Glycine

Involved in the synthesis of phosphocreatine

7

Transamination

Transfer of an amino group to free keto – acid

8

Taurine

Concentrations are very high in the brain and heart

9

Tryptophan

May improve sleep as a precursor of serotonin

10

List 4 forms of amino acids and proteins found in the human body

A) Pool of free amino acids in circulation
B) blood protein structures
C) viscera
D) skeletal muscle and connective tissue's

11

Free amino acid carriers recognize an amino acid specific ______ & _______ to allow for their transport into tissues

A) shape
B) Chemical properties

12

True or false?
Individual amino acids can be used for the synthesis of neurotransmitters, hormones, creatine, fatty acid, glucose, or ketones

True

13

List two reasons why protein requirements are believed to be greater for athletes

A) amino acid may be oxidized during exercise
B) increased protein synthesis is necessary to repair damage and form the basis of training adaptations.

14

True or false?
When nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen excretion the individual is in a positive nitrogen balance and must be retaining protein

True

15

Method: nitrogen balance
Advantages: accurate when used over relatively long periods
Disadvantages and limitations:

Method: nitrogen balance
Advantages: accurate when used over relatively long periods
Disadvantages and limitations: difficult and time-consuming tends to over estimate nitrogen retention, usually ignores loss in sweat.

16

Method:
Advantages: no health risk
Disadvantages and limitations: relatively expensive, sophisticated equipment needed

Method: stable isotopes

17

Method: Arteriovenous measurements of amino acids across a tissue bed
Advantages:
Disadvantages and limitations: invasive, has high variability, depends on blood flow

Method:
Advantages: gives data on net exchange of amino acids, net uptake of essential amino acids related to rate of protein synthesis.
Disadvantages and limitations:

18

Method: Urea concentration in urine and sweat
Advantages:
Disadvantages and limitations:

Method: Urea concentration in urine and sweat
Advantages: easy, relatively cheap
Disadvantages and limitations: only rough estimate, heavily affected by diet

19

Identify three athletic populations that may be at increased risk for protein deficiency

Female runners, male wrestlers, boxers and other athletes in weight category sports, ski jumpers, male and female gymnasts, female dancers, vegetarians

20

True or false?
Indy hours following exercise, protein synthesis will surpass protein breakdown only when amino acids are ingested.

True

21

True or false?
Supplementing BCAAs has not been proven to enhance exercise performance beyond consuming the same quantity of essential amino acids and natural food products.

True

22

Supplemental ________ is marketed to improve immune function, promote rapid water absorption from the gut, hasten recovery after exercise, and lead to fewer gastrointestinal problems, but none of these claims have been clearly demonstrated in research.

Glutamine

23

Which of the following is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle and blood plasma?

A) BCAA
B) arginine
C) glutamine
D) taurine

C) glutamine

24

Which of the following is not a function of protein turnover within the human body?

A) The degration of damage proteins prevents a decline in their function
B) Energy pro vision
C) synthesis of necessary compound such as neurotransmitters and hormones
D) stimulate the liberation of glycerol from adipose and intramuscular triglycerides

D) stimulate the liberation of glycerol from adipose an intramuscular triglycerides

25

When an amino acid undergoes oxidative deamination to enter the TCA cycle for energy, which of the following compounds is formed as a byproduct of that must be extracted by the kidneys?

A) epinephrine
B) ammonia (NH3)
C) Keto - acids
D) ketones

B) ammonia (NH3)

26

Which of the following describes what will occur when an individual remains in a negative nitrogen balance?

A) muscle fiber hypertrophy
B) kidney damage
C) liver damage
D) also and organ atrophy

D) muscle and organ atrophy

27

To what degree can protein contribute to energy expenditure in extreme cases of prolonged exercise?

A) up to 10% of energy expenditure
B) up to 20% of energy expenditure
C) up to 30% of energy expenditure
D) up to 40% of energy expenditure

A) up to 10% of energy expenditure

28

What is the recommended daily intake of protein for strength athletes?

A) 1.2 - 1.5g/ kg of BW
B) 1.4–1.6 g /kg of BW
C) 1.6–1.7 g/kg of BW
D) 1.8–2.0 g/kg of BW

C) 1.6–1.7 g/kilogram of BW

29

Which of the following would not have an optimal effect on protein synthesis occurring after an intense doubt of resistance training?

A) ingestion of CHO with protein intake directly after the exercise bout
B) ingestion of 25g of essential amino acids 5 hours after the exercise bout
C) ingestion of 6g of essential amino acids with 35g of CHO directly prior to the exercise bout
D) ingestion of 20g of essential amino acid's 1 hour after the exercise bout

B) ingestion of 25g of essential amino acids 5 hours after the exercise bout

30

Which of the following amino acids marketed as a supplement has been shown, when administered in large doses, to prevent the substantial decline in various aspects of cognitive performance and mood when encountering acute stress?

A) Tyrosine
B) Taurine
C) Ornithine
D) Tryptophan

A) Tyrosine

31

Which of the following amino acids is known to help synthesize antioxidants and facilitate immunological functions?

A) arginine
B) Aspartate
C) glutamine
D) glycine

C) glutamine

32

Which of the following statements related to protein intake and health risks is incorrect?

A) for many athletes the biggest danger of high protein intake is that it often comes from at the cost of reduced CHO intake
B) increased protein intake may promote direct negative effects on blood cholesterol
C) athletes on a high-protein diet need to consume more fluids due to the increased demand to flush out excess nitrogen in the urine
D) healthy people with no indications of kidney issues can consume higher protein intake's

B) increase protein intake may promote direct negative effects on blood cholesterol