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Flashcards in Energy Deck (33):
0

1 calorie equals?

4.186 Joules

1

Energy Efficiency is?

Efficiency is expressed as the total work accomplished after energy is expended.
(Can be applied to muscular contractions)

2

Energy economy is?

Economy is expressed as the oxygen uptake required to exercise at a given intensity.
People with a lower exercise economy expand more calories in a given workload due to system in efficiency.

3

Energy

Energy represents the capacity to perform work

4

Open circuit spirometry

Is a method of measuring exercise energy expenditure

5

Direct calorimetry

Measurement of heat to determine energy expenditure

6

Coefficient of digestibility

Percentage of food energy that is absorbed

7

Nitrogen

Found in all animal protein sources

8

Calorie

Energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C

9

Respiratory quotient

Reveals the primary substrate used during exercise

10

Joule

Energy needed to move mass of 1 g at at the lost city of 1 m/s

11

Labeled bicarbonate

Example of a tracer method for measuring energy expenditure

12

Work

Force x distance

13

______ _________is the ratio of total work to energy expended

Gross efficiency

14

True or false
Fiber reduces the coefficient of digestibility of a meal and promotes rapid transport of digested food through the intestines

True

15

Rank the following food products from highest (1) to lowest (5) in relation to their coefficient of digestibility

Egg protein
vegetable protein
legume protein
dairy fat
vegetable fat

Egg protein - 1
dairy fat - 2
vegetable fat - 3
vegetable protein - 4
legume protein - 5

16

Identify the caloric yield per gram consumed for the following macronutrients based on that Atwater factors.

Carbohydrates
Fats
proteins

Carbohydrates - 4 kcal
Fats - 9 kcal
proteins - 4 kcal

17

List three methods of measuring energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry

Closed circuit spirometry
Open circuit spirometry
Use of respiration chamber
Douglas

18

True or false
The thermic affect of exercise is normally between 15-30% but can account for up to 80% of daily energy expenditure during elite level, heavy endurance training competitions.

True

19

If _________ was the predominant fuel source during an exercise session, the measured respiratory quotient would be around 0.7

Fat

20

List three primary components of energy expenditure

Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Thermic effect of food (TEF)
Thermic effect of exercise (TEE)

21

True or false
The thermic effect of food can increase energy expenditure for up to eight hours after ingestion of a meal.

True

22

If energy intake _________ Energy expenditure, the body will be in a positive caloric balance and weight gain will occur.

Exceeds

23

Which of the following selections is defined by mechanical work expressed per unit of time?

A: Energy
B: Joule
C: power
D: net efficiency

C: power

24

Approximately how efficient is the human body when using energy produced during muscular contractions or other forms of mechanical work?

20% efficient

25

Which of the following devices can be used to directly measure the caloric content of a food product in the clinical setting?

A: Spirometer
B: Direct calorimetry chamber
C: Douglas bag
D: bomb Calorimeter

D: bomb calorimeter

26

According to the Atwater energy values, fat provides approximately how many kilocalories per gram consumed?

9 kcal/g

27

Which of the following food products has the highest coefficient of digestibility (COE)?

A: plant source protein
B: fat
C: animal source protein
D: sugar

D: sugar

28

Which of the following would produce a respiratory quotient of 1.0 if it was the primary energy used during exercise?

A: protein
B: glucose
C: glycogen
D: fat

B: glucose

29

Which of the following selections is the greatest component of energy expenditure among sedentary individuals?

A: thermic effect of food (TEF)
B: resting metabolic rate (RMR)
C: thermic affect of exercise (TEE)
D: hormonal actions related to emotion (HAE)

B: resting metabolic rate (RMR)

30

Which of the following is incorrect as it relates to resting metabolic rate (RMR)?

A: greater total muscle mass increases RMR
B: RMR Increases with age
C: actions of organs such as the liver, kidneys and heart account for up to 75% of the RMR
D: genetics have a significant influence on RMR

B: RMR increases with age

31

Which of the following nutrients would produce the greatest thermic effect and subsequent increase in energy expenditure hours after consumption?

A: simple carbohydrates
B: lean protein
C: fat
D: alcohol

B: lean protein

32

Well trained endurance athletes have been documented expending calories at rates up to ________, making energy balance difficult

A: 300 kcal per hour
B: 750 kcal per hour
C: 1,000 kcal per hour
D: 1,300 kcal per hour

C: 1,000 kcal per hour