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What is Innate immunity

First line of immune system defense



May aid in the treatment of URTIs


NK cell is

Innate immune system cell


Adaptive immunity

Activates lymphocyte


Zinc deficiencies can cause?

Deficiency can cause lymphoid atrophy


Glutamine is utilized by?

Utilized at extremely high rates by WBCs


Colostrum is produced from?

Produced by a lactating cow shortly after birth


Complement consists of?
And does?

Consists of proteins that stimulate neutralization of infected cells


Describe three actions that occurred during the inflammatory response

Increased local blood flow to the infected area.
Increased permeability of local capillaries.
Allows entry of white blood cells and plasma proteins into infected tissue


Macrophages first________ invading microorganisms to metabolize proteins on the surface, and then activate _____ and ______ specific for a Raticate in the infectious agent.



List for practices that can minimize the risk of infection during the early recovery period after exercise

Avoid contact with people who have symptoms of infection, minimize contact with school-age children in large crowds, wash hands regularly, particularly after touching services frequently handled by the public, avoid hand I and hand to mouth contact to prevent transferring microbes too sensitive mucosal tissues, maintain good oral hygiene, avoid getting a dry mouth during competition and at rest by drinking at regular intervals and maintaining hydration status, never shared drink bottles or cutlery, use properly treated water for consumption and swimming, avoid shared Sonos, showers, and whirlpool tub's


True or false?
Circulating white blood cell count's are generally lower in athletes at rest when compared with sedentary individuals?



List five immune system functions that can be compromised with low nutrient availability

Antibody production
Intercellular immunity
Capacity of phagocytes to kill bacteria
Complement formation
Lymphocyte creation


Exercising in a CHO – depleted state can cause larger increases in circulating _____, reduced ____ availability, and ______ effects on immune function

Stress hormones, glutamine, greater negative


True or false?
Fatty acids can exert FX on the immune system by altering cell membrane fluidity and reducing eicosanoid formation



True or false?
Study show increased lymphocyte activity within the body following the ingestion of caffeine



List three negative effects related to immune function caused by free radical ROS

Inhibited mobility and bactericidal activity of neutrophils
Reduced creation of lymphocytes
Inhibited NK cell activity


_____ promotes the development of red and white blood cell count in bone marrow



True or false?
Echinacea has been shown in research to provide modest benefits for treatment of acute URTI's



Describe five practical strategies that athletes should consider to minimize the risk of infection during the competitive season

Allow sufficient time between training sessions for recovery, avoid extremely long training sessions, avoid training monotony by ensuring variation in the day today training load, when increasing training load, do so on the hard days, when recovering from overtraining or illness, begin with very light training in build gradually, monitor and record mood, feelings of fatigue and muscle soreness during training, keep other life social and physiological stress is to a minimum, get at least six hours of sleep each night, maintain good oral hygiene by brushing teeth regularly and using mouthwash, wash hands regularly and do not share towels, increased rest as needed after travel across time zones. Eat a well-balanced diet to obtain all necessary vitamins and minerals, if dating to lose weight or if fresh fruit and vegetables are not readily available use a multivitamin supplement, ensure adequate total dietary energy, CHO and protein intake. Drink CHO sport drinks before during and after prolonged training.


Which of the following is not a component of innate immunity?

A) skin
B) Chemical barriers
C) phagocytes
D) lymphocytes

D) lymphocytes


Which of the following changes related to immune function occurred during the recovery period after exercise which can increase the risk of infection?

A) an increase in circulating WBCs
B) A decrease in cortisol production
C) an increase in plasma glutamine concentration
D) NK cell numbers and activity fall below pre-exercise levels

D) NK cell numbers and activity fall below pre-exercise levels


Consuming _____ during exercise reduces stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise induced Immunodepression.

A) glutamine
D) Echinacea



In adequate protein intake to negatively impair the immune system in which of the following ways?

A) enhanced T cell lymphocyte activity
B) widespread atrophy of lymphoid tissue
C) enhanced phagocytic immune cell activity
D) increased cytokine production in activity

B) widespread atrophy of lymphoid tissue


Evidence suggests that consumption of light to moderate amounts of ______ alcoholic beverages such as wine could have health benefits

A) polyphenol- rich
B) CHO rich
C) PUFA rich
D) probiotic rich

A) polyphenol- rich


Deficiency of ____ can caused lymphoid atrophy, impaired lymphocyte responses to infection, decreased cytokine production, and lowered NK cell selectivity

A) zinc
B) Iron
C) copper
D) cobalt

A) zinc


Which of the following dietary immunostimulants is derived from the mammary gland of the lactating cow shortly after giving birth

A) echinacea
B) B-glucans
C) bovine colostrum
D) curcumin

C) bovine colostrum


Of the following statements considering probiotics, which is incorrect?

A) I can directly interact with 85% of the bodies lymph nodes
B) they can be effective in alleviating some allergic reactions and respiratory disorders in young children
C) they can help inhibit the growth and harmful effects of Immunodepressing bacteria, toxins, and carcinogens in the gut
D) they can improve the rate of recovery from viral influenza

D) they can improve the rate of recovery from viral influenza


Which of the following is a vitamin considered to be essential for normal immune function

A) selenium
B) vitamin B 12
C) vitamin K
D) Iron

B) vitamin B 12


Vaccinations are optimally attained during _____ And never before _____

A) The in season, sleeping
B) The off-season, competition
C) The preseason, eating
D) competition, the off-season

B) The off-season, competition