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Flashcards in Nutrition Supplements Deck (30):
0

Boron

Found to increase bone mineral density among postmenopausal women

1

Vanadium

Appears to be useful for type 2 diabetes

2

Caffeine

Can reduce the perceived exertion of exercise

3

Chlorine

Erogenic benefit claims based on in Vitro studies

4

HMB

Might be useful for clinical muscle wasting conditions

5

Yohimbine

a2-adrenoreceptor blocker purported to increase testosterone

6

Creatine can be found in

Primary dietary sources include red meat and fish

7

Glycerol

Must be consumed with relatively large quantities of water to be effective

8

Glandulars

Metabolized during digestion and inactive when absorbed

9

Sodium citrate

Functions to buffer H+ from the blood

10

List 4 factors to consider when evaluating the research claims of a specific supplement

Does the study have a clear specific hypothesis?
Was the study implemented on cells, muscle, animals or humans?
Is the population for which claims are applied identical to the population examined in the study?
Were external variables controlled?
Was the study placebo controlled?
Were adequate techniques used?
We're the trials randomized?
Was a crossover design used?
Was participant assignment random?
Do other studies come from the findings?
Was the study peer – reviewed?

11

True or false?
You nutrition supplements have proven benefits related to performance, recovery, or effects on body weight or composition?

True

12

Research has reported a decrease in healthy HDL cholesterol with use of _________

Androstenedione

13

True or false?
Even though inosine has been purported to improve strength, training quality, and overall performance, research has shown it to be a potentially ergolytic compound.

True

14

________ is often referred to as a vitamin B15 but is not a vitamin or is sensual nutrient, and has no known function in the body.

Pangamic Acid

15

________ could enhance the availability of an important fuel source for the heart and skeletal muscle but has not been found to be a practical ergogenic aid as increases in performance can only occur at ingestion rates that are not tolerated by the gastrointestinal tract

Polylactate

16

List three supplements that have been clearly proven in research to be effective ergogenic aids

Caffeine, creatine, glycerol, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate

17

Or false?
Current legislation does Little to protect athletes and other consumers from insufficiently labeled, missed labeled, contaminated, or even unsafe ingredients in the dietary supplements.

True

18

What 3 factors can influence the erogenic effectiveness of creatine for a given athlete?

A) Initial muscle creatine concentrations
B) The type of exercise or sport engaged in
C) current fitness level and training status of the athlete

19

List 2 tensional side effects of glycerol supplementation

nausea, heartache, headache, blurred vision, gastrointestinal problems, dizziness, bloating due to the necessity to ingest large quantities of water

20

Which of the following statements related to nutritional supplement claims is INCORRECT?

A) many claims are not backed by Scientific study
B) many claims declare unrealistic affects
C) many claims stem from independent research
D) many claims are strictly regulated by the FDA through testing

D) many claims are strictly regulated by the FDA through testing

21

Which of the following nutritional supplements claim to be a useful ergogenic Aid simply contains a mixture of vitamins, minerals, and amino acids and has been found to be ineffective?

A) Carnitine
B) Fish oil
C) Bee pollen
D) Glandulars

C) bee pollen

22

Which of the following nutritional supplements has been found to be useful for promoting recovery from cardiac surgery but is not proven to be ineffective ergogenic aid for healthy adults?

A) coenzyme Q10
B) lecithin
C) Yohimbine
D) wheat germ oil

A) coenzyme Q10

23

Which of the following nutritional supplements is commonly marketed as an "adaptogen" (substance that helps the body deal with stress?)

A) pangamic acid
B) ginseng
C) DHA
D) creatine

B) ginseng

24

Which of the following nutritional supplements is actually a precursor of testosterone and estradiol that is internally synthesize during early adulthood by the adrenal cortex?

A) pyruvate
B) phosphatidylserine
C) glycerol
D) DHEA

D) DHEA

25

Which of the following is not a suggested mechanism of action related to the ergogenic effects of caffeine?

A) caffeine increases libel lysis and spares muscle glycogen
B) caffeine may increase the excitation threshold for motor neuron recruitment
C) caffeine increases excitability of muscle fibers by increasing calcium released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum
D) caffeine stimulates the release of catecholamines and other neurotransmitters that could possibly result in decreased perception of effort

B) caffeine may increase the excitation threshold for motor neuron recruitment

26

Which of the following statements related to the ergogenic affects of creatine is incorrect?

A) creatine supplementation can improve long distance endurance training by increasing motor unit efficiency
B) creatine supplementation can improve force production when performing multiple sets of bench press
C) creatine supplementation can improve repeat sprint performance and recovery
D) creatine supplementation can allow for additional strength training volume and therefore improve anabolic affects.

A) improve long distance endurance training by increasing motor unit efficiency

27

Which of the following describes a potential benefit of glycogen supplementation?

A) enhanced buffering of lactic acid
B) increased force production
C) increased water absorption and retention
D) enhanced cognitive functioning

C) increased water absorption and retention

28

Which of the following nutritional supplements might be useful for reducing acidity within working muscle while performing high-intensity exercise for approximately five minutes

A) boron
B) androstenedione
C) inosine
D) sodium bicarbonate

D) sodium bicarbonate

29

Which of the following substances has not been banned by the international Olympic Committee

A) ephedrine
B) chlorine
C) strychnine
D) androstenedione

B) chlorine