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Flashcards in Vitamins And Minerals Deck (38):
0

Free radicals

Contain unpaired electrons that cause oxidative damage

1

Electrolytes do what?

Function to conduct nerve impulses

2

Lipid peroxidation

Process involving the abstraction of reactive H+ from FA chains

3

Copper

Appears to be needed for the proper use of iron

4

Parathyroid hormone

Stimulates bone demineralization

5

Hypokalemia

Low blood potassium

6

Osteoporosis

Can occur with inadequate calcium intake

7

Phosphate salts

Suggested to improve ATP resynthesis

8

Vitamin C does what

Facilitates nonheme iron absorption

9

Anemia

Lack of healthy red blood cells

10

________ promotes calcium absorption and bone formation, deficiency is associated with brittle bones.

Vitamin D

11

True or false?
There are 13 different a sensual vitamins, including 4 fat- soluble and 9 water soluble compounds

True

12

List 3 vitamins for which training may increase the daily requirement.

Vitamins:
B2
B6
C
E
B-carotene

13

Trace elements constitute less than 0.01% of total body mass and are therefore needed in daily quantities of ________

Less than 100 mg

14

List five issues or diseases associated with in adequate minerals in the diet.

anemia, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, tooth decay, immune dysfunction, and increased incidence of infection

15

Lost 3 Athletes that have a demand to maintain a low bodyweight

Gymnasts, jockeys, ballet dancers

16

List 4 athletes that demand to make competition weight

Weight class sports, wrestling, boxing, judo

17

Who has a demand for very low body fat?

Bodybuilders

18

What athlete is at risk when consuming vegetarian diets?

Endurance athletes

19

What athletes are at risk when training in hot, humid conditions

Endurance athletes

20

True or false?
Alcohol and caffeine intake are considered risk factors for the development of osteoporosis

True

21

List 4 negative effects on performance caused by exercise induced muscle damage

Muscle pain, soreness, stiffness, reduced range of motion, higher than normal blood lactate concentration, higher perceived exertion during exercise, loss of strength and dynamic power output that can last from 5–10 days, impaired restoration of muscle glycogen due to impaired ability to take up glucose from blood

22

True or false?
Free radicals are generated in a controlled manner in response to physiological stress and may play important roles and muscle adaptation

True

23

True or false?
Large doses of vitamin C ingested by pregnant women are known to cause birth defects?

False

24

List 4 negative effects associated with iron deficiency anemia

Lowered O2-carrying of blood, sensations of breathlessness on mild exertion, general lethargy, impaired mental function, impaired temperature control, weekend in unity, reduced exercise tolerance and performance

25

True or false?
The average intake of sodium in the US is reported to be three times greater than the adequate intake value set for the mineral

True

26

List five contributing risk factors for a vitamin deficiency among the elite athletes.

Fatiguing and time consuming demands of training, increased vitamin turnover, additional loss of some vitamins, Poor food selection, limited time for food preparation, lack of qualified dietary advice

27

True or false?
Current research demonstrates that excess vitamin or mineral intake does not enhance performance unless the athlete is currently deficient or follows a very low calorie diet.

True.

28

Which of the following vitamins can protect against the potentially damaging effects of free radicals in the body?

A) vitamin B12
B) vitamin K
C) cobalt
D) vitamin A

D) vitamin A

29

An athlete with amenorrhea should supplement which of the following?

A) zinc
B) magnesium
C) calcium
D) vitamin C

C) calcium

30

Which of the following statements concerning antioxidants is incorrect?

A) The body's natural antioxidant system is enhanced as an adaptation to exercise.
B) individuals who exercise regularly have a lower incidence of disease, suggesting the benefits of regular exercise outweighs the risks of free radical medicated damage.
C) large supplemental doses of antioxidants may be beneficial for athletes who trained vigorously.
D) athletes can obtain sedition intake of natural antioxidants by consuming a balanced diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables

C) large supplemental doses of antioxidants may be beneficial for athletes who train vigorously

31

Which of the following selections represents the average absorption range for iron in nonheme food sources?

A) 2% – 10%
B) 5% – 15%
C) 8% – 20%
D) 10% – 30%

A) 2% – 10%

32

Which of the following electrolytes ingested in excess can have a negative effect on blood pressure?

A) potassium
B) sulfate
C) sodium
D) magnesium

C) sodium

33

Which of the following athlete groups are at the greatest risk for vitamin deficiency?

A) Male high school wrestlers
B) female Olympic sprinters
C) female adolescent gymnast
D) male college basketball players

C) female adolescent gymnast

34

Which of the following micronutrients has been shown to improve performance in events in which lactic acid accumulation is a major cause of fatigue?

A) Iron
B) B12
C) phosphate
D) sodium bicarbonate

D) Sodium bicarbonate

35

Athletes who trained in hot environments should consider increasing their intake of which of the following minerals due to the significant losses that can occur during sweating?

A) calcium
B) magnesium
C) Chromium
D) fluorine

B) magnesium

36

Which of the following micro nutrients is essential for oxygen transport?

A) Folic acid
B) iodine
C) Iron
D) chlorine

C) Iron

37

Which of the following does not contribute to reactive oxygen species production which can cause oxidative cellular damage throughout the body?

A) high protein diet
B) aerobic processes of cellular metabolism within the mitochondria
C) cigarette smoke
D) metabolic actions of white blood cells that occurred during the eradication of foreign materials or bacteria

A) high protein diets