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Flashcards in Path review2 Deck (120):
1

flat lesion under .5 cm

macule

2

flat lesion over .5 cm

patch

3

small elevated lesion

papule

4

solid lesion larger than .5 cm

nodule

5

small blister

vesicle

6

large blister

bullae

7

large elevated flat topped area

plaque

8

epidermal hyperplasia

acanthosis

9

retention of nuclei in stratum corneum

parakaratosis

10

loss of cellular connections

acantholysis

11

increased intercellular edema

spongiosis

12

effect of sun exposure on melanocytes

increases number

13

cell type: basal layer, small halo

melanocytes

14

differences between nevis and melanoma

melanoma: multicolored, larger, irregular borders, asymmetrical, andy "change"

15

"pagetoid spread"

melanoma

16

focal melanocyte hyperplasia

lentigo

17

gives a near 100% chance of melanoma

dysplastic nevi syndrome

18

most important prognostic indicators (2)of melanoma

sentinal lymph node and depth of invasion

19

def: eburnation

polished bone

20

eburantion found in

OA

21

distal joint involved in which arthritis

OA

22

osteophytes found in:

OA

23

morning pain in which arthritis

RA

24

HLA-DR4 associated with

RA

25

HLA B27 diagnostic for

ankylosing spondy

26

joints fused in ankylosing spondy

veterbrae, sacro-iliac

27

conjunctivitis, urethritis, peripherial arthritis and skin pustles

reiter's syndrome

28

bad prognosis in psoriatic arthritis

HLA B27

29

dislocation, DIP joints involved, possible bone collapse for bone resorbtion

psoriatic arthritis

30

major bugs in septic arthritis

staph A, N gonorrhea, TB

31

crystal in actual gout

urate salts (needle shaped)

32

crystal type and shape in pseudogout

calcium pyrophosphate, rhomboid

33

major clinical diff between gout and pseudogout

gout is usually big toe, pseudogout can be any

34

mutation in achondroplasia

FGFR3

35

lethal homozygosity

achondroplasia

36

effect of FGFR3 mutation in achrondroplasia

constantly activated, which inhibits chondroblasts, leading to decreased long bone growth

37

collagen defect in ostogenesis imperfecta

type I

38

blue schlera found in

OI

39

deficiency in carbonic anydrase II

osteopetrosis

40

bone is thickened but weak

osteopetrosis

41

test for osteoperosis

DEXA scan

42

fractures found in osteoperosis

verterbra and femoral neck

43

increased bone remodeling in older people

Paget's disease

44

chalk stick fracture, deafness, increased hat size

Paget's disease

45

Paget's disease has a risk of

osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor of bone

46

fancy term for rickets

osteomalacia

47

signs of rickets in kids

bowed legs and rib nodules

48

brown tumor in lungs a sign of

parathyroidism

49

cause of secondary hyperPTH

hypocalcemia

50

organ malfunction that can lead to hyperPTH

kidney (renal osteodysttophy)

51

causes of avascular necrosis

fracture, chronic steroids, thromboembolism, vasculitis, sickle cell

52

radiological findings in avascular necrosis

flattening of articular surfaces

53

places to find avascular necrosis

shoulder,knee, hip, scaphoid

54

most common cancers that met to bone

breast, lung, thyroid (follicular), kidney (renal cell) and prostate (osteoblastic)

55

most common benign bone tumor

osteochondroma

56

medullary cavity communicates with tumor medullary cavity

osteochondroma

57

smaller cartilige cap (< 1.5 cm)

osteochondroma

58

larger cartilage (>1.5cm) cap

chondrosarcoma

59

benign neoplasm of older pts

endchondoma

60

signs endochondroma has become malignant

pain, bony erosion or extension to soft tissue

61

benign but locally aggressive tumor

giant cell tumor

62

giant cell tumors arise in the

epiphysis

63

translocation in Ewing's Sarcoma

11:22 (Fli-1/EWS)

64

bimodal age distribution malignant tumor

osteosarcoma

65

periostial elevaltion

osteosarcoma

66

invades bone and soft tissue

chondrosarcoma

67

highly aggressive bone cancer

osteosarcoma

68

usually effects the knee (bone cancer)

osteosarcoma

69

usually effets long bones and pelvis of kids

ewing's

70

fried egg histology

ewing's

71

PTCH mutation

gorlin

72

acoutsic neuroma, meningiomas

NFII

73

2/22 translocation

muir torre

74

autosomal recessive skin syndrome

XP

75

seizures, mental retardation, angiofibroblastomas, rhabdo

tuberous schlerosis

76

skin syndrome with risk of breast and thyroid cancer

cowden's disease

77

neuromas cafe au lait spots lisch nodules

NFI

78

hamartin and tuberin mutation

tuberous schlerosis

79

pathway of PTCH mutation

PTCH/SMO normally bound unless activited by SHH. In mutation thay are always unbound, leading to unregulated cell growth --> basal cell carcinoma

80

urticaria is what kind of hypersensitivity reaction

type 1

81

type of hypersensitivy reaction in contact dermatitis/eczema

IV

82

targeted lesions

erythema multiforme

83

lots of lymphocytes at derm/epiderm junction with dying keratinocytes

erythema multiforme

84

erythema multiforme over 10-30% of body

steven johnson

85

erythema multiforme over 30%

Total epidermal necrosis

86

cause of stevens johnson

sulfa drugs

87

nail pitting found in

psorisis

88

well demarcated salmon plaque with silver scale

psoriasis

89

pathogensis of psorisis

T cell infiltration, secretes growth factors, leading to epidermal hyperplasis

90

diseases associated with psoriasis

arthritis, AIDS, depression, myopathy,CV dz, enteropathy

91

sawtoothing and civatte bodies

lichen plantus

92

puritic, purple, polygonal, papules and plaques

lichen planus

93

aassociated with hep C

lichen planus

94

superficial and deep infiltrate with keratin pluging and mucin

lupus erythematous

95

fish net IF

pemphigus vulgaris

96

easily rupturing, superbasal blisters

pemphigus vulgaris

97

type of reaction in pemphigus vulgaris

type II with IgG antibodies against desmogleins

98

tense, fluid bullae

bulloid pemphigus

99

linear pattern on IF and large tense blisters

bullous pemphigoid

100

type of rxn in bullous pemphigoid

type II against BPAa1/2

101

granular IgA on IF

dermatitis herpetiformis

102

linked to celiac

dermatitis herpetiformis

103

subepidermal blister with neuttophils

dermititis herpetiformis

104

linear basement membrane IF with blisters forming in areas of trauma

epidermolysis bullosa aquisita

105

antibody in dermatitis herpetiformis

IgA

106

antibody against collagen type VII

EBA

107

round plauques appearing stuck on

seborrieic keratosis

108

mutations in FGF3 receptor

seborrheic keratosis

109

appearance of seborrieic keratosis should make you be on the lookout for

GI cancer

110

precancerous growth associated with sun damage, and "horns"

actinic keratosis

111

caused by sun damage TT dimers

SCC

112

malignant nests of keratinocytes

SCC

113

pearly white papule with telangetasia and central ulceration

BCC

114

VERY VERY VERY rarely metastasizes

BCC

115

firm brown papule on legs of long people

dermatofibroma

116

honeycomb pattern with spindled cells

dermatofibrosarcoma

117

dermatofibroma positive for

CD34

118

bean shaped cells and tennis racket on EM

langerhans cell histiocytosis

119

erythema and edema when rubbed

mastocytosis

120

+ for CD117

mastocytosis