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Flashcards in Patients w/ special challenges Deck (31)
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1
Q

Developmental disabilities

A

Insufficient development of the brain causing dysfunction or impairment

2
Q

Causes of intellectual disabilities include:

A
Genetic factors
Congenital infections
Complications at birth
Malnutrition
Environmental factor
Prenatal drug or ETOH use
TBI
Poisoning
3
Q

Autism is characterized by :

A

Impairment of social interaction
Severe behavioral problems
Repetitive motor activities
Verbal and nonverbal language impairment

4
Q

Physical abnormalities of downy syndrome

A
Round head w/ flat occiput
Enlarged, protruding tongue
Slanted, wide-set eyes
Folded skin on either side of the nose, covering the inner corners of the eyes
Short, wide hands
Small face and features
Congenital heart defects
Thyroid problems
Hearing and vision problems
5
Q

Visual impairments may result from

A

Congenital defect
Disease
Injury
Degeneration of the eyeball, optic nerve, or nerve pathway

6
Q

Sensorineural deafness

A

Nerve damage resulting from a lesion or damage to the inner ear

7
Q

Conductive hearing loss

A

Faulty transmission of sound waves, which can occur when a person has an accumulation of wax or a perforated TM.

8
Q

Cerebral palsy is a result of :

A

Damage to brain in utero
Oxygen deprivation at birth
TBI at birth
Infection (meningitis) during early childhood

9
Q

Cystic fibrosis

A

Genetic disorder characterized by increased production of mucus in the lungs and GI.

10
Q

In CF, the increased mucus :

A

Impairs respiration
Disrupts digestion of food
Predisposition to repeated lung infections
May become life-threatening emergency in severe situations

11
Q

Treatment for CF

A

Strictly supportive with airway and suctioning of secretions. Use humidified oxygen if available.

12
Q

Multiple sclerosis

A

Severe, incurable, degenerative disorder involving CNS

13
Q

Typical s/s of MS

A

Conditions related to muscle coordination, muscle, tone, altered sensation, and altered gait.

14
Q

Muscular dystrophy

A

Slow, progressive degeneration of muscle fibers.

15
Q

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by

A

Cardiomyopathy
Heart dysrhythmias
Scoliosis
Gait disturbances

16
Q

Hemiplegia

A

Paralysis of one side of the body

17
Q

Paraplegia

A

Paralysis of lower part of body

18
Q

Quadriplega

A

Paralysis of all four extremities and trunk

19
Q

Dysphagia

A

Partial paralysis of the esophagus causing inability to swallow

20
Q

The term obese is used when someone is ____ or move over his or her ideal body weight.

A

30%

21
Q

DOPE mnemonic

A

Displaced, dislodged, or damaged tube
Obstructed tube
Pneumothorax
Equipment failure

22
Q

How would you assess perfusion in a patient with an LVAD?

A

LOC
Skin color, temp, moisture
BP

23
Q

Intra-aortic balloon pumps

A

Used to decrease cardiac workload and augment perfusion in patients w/ cardiogenic shock, structural abnormalities of the head, MI, or following cardiac surgery.

24
Q

Relationship between IABP balloon and cardiac cycle.

A

Diastole : balloon inflates, pushing blood forward into systemic circulation.
Systole : balloon actively deflates, creating a vacuum and reducing cardiac afterload.

25
Q

Problems associated w/ central lines

A

Broken lines
Infections around the lines
Clotted lines
Bleeding around or from the tubing

26
Q

How should a patient with a G-tube be transported?

A

Sitting or lying on the ride side w/ head elevated 30 degrees

27
Q

Ventricular peritoneum shunt

A

Drains excess fluid from the ventricles of the brain into the peritoneum.

28
Q

Ventricular atrium shunt

A

Drains excess fluid from the ventricles of the brain to the right atrium.

29
Q

Signs of distress in patients w/ shunts

A
High-pitched cry or bulging fontanels
Headache
Projectile vomiting
AMS
Irritability
Fever
Nausea
Difficulty with coordination
Blurred vision
Seizures
Redness along shunt track
Bradycardia
Heart dysrhythmias
30
Q

Signs of potential failure of GI or Gu devices

A
Abdominal pain or distention
Decreased or absent bowel sounds
Bladder distention
Dysuria
Changes in urinary output or color
31
Q

A terminally ill patient has the following rights :

A

Know the truth
Confidentiality and privacy
Consent to treatment
Determine the disposition of his/her body