Orthopedic Injuries Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Orthopedic Injuries Deck (49)
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1
Q

The blood supply in each UE originates from the :

A

subclavian artery

2
Q

The blood supply in each LE originates from the :

A

iliac artery

3
Q

abduction

A

movement AWAY from midline

4
Q

adduction

A

movement TOWARD the midline

5
Q

Pathologic fracture

A

Fx caused when a medical condition weakens bone

6
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ scapular fx

A

rib fx
pulmonary contusion
pneumothorax

7
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ scaphoid fx

A

wrist, elbow, or shoulder fx

8
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ pelvic fx

A

lumbosacral spine and long bone fx

intra-abdominal and GU injury

9
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ hip dislocations

A

acetabulum or femoral head fx

10
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ femoral fx

A

dislocation of ipsilateral hip

11
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ patella fx

A

fx-dislocation of ipsilateral hip

12
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ knee dislocation

A

tibial fx (distal pulse may be absent)

13
Q

Injuries that commonly occur w/ calcaneal fx

A

ankle, leg, hip, pelvis, spine, and other calcaneus fx

14
Q

comminuted fx

A

bone broken into two fragments

15
Q

epiphyseal fx

A

occurs in growth section of child’s bone

16
Q

greenstick fx

A

incomplete fx passing partway through the shaft but may cause substantial angulation

17
Q

incomplete fx

A

does not run completely through the bone

18
Q

oblique fx

A

broken at an angle across the bone; usually sharp, angled blow

19
Q

spiral fx

A

caused by twisting or spinning force, causing a long, spiral-shaped brak

20
Q

transverse fx

A

straight across the bone; direct blow injury

21
Q

s/s of fx

A
deformity
shortening
swelling
bruising
point tenderness
pain
guarding
crepitus
false motion
locked joint
exposed bone ends
22
Q

What is a sprain?

A

Stretch or torn ligaments

23
Q

s/s of sprains

A
Point tenderness
Swelling
Ecchymosis
Pain
Joint instability
24
Q

What is a strain?

A

Injury to muscle and/or tendon resulting from a violent muscle contraction or excessive sweating.

25
Q

s/s of strain

A
Swelling
Severe muscle weakness
Point tenderness
Pain
Exacerbation of pain w/ passive movement of injured extermity
26
Q

s/s Achilles tendon rupture

A

Pain from heel to calf and sudden inability to plantar flex the foot.

27
Q

Moderate musculoskeletal injuries

A

Open fx of digits
Nondisplaced long bone and pelvic fx
Major sprains of major joint

28
Q

Serious musculoskeletal injuries

A
Displaced long bone fx
Multiple hand and foot fx
Open long bone fx
Displaced pelvic dx
Dislocation of major joints
Multiple digit amputations
Lacerations of major nerves or blood vessels
29
Q

Severe life-threatening musculoskeletal injuries

A

Multiple closed fx
Limb amputations
b/l femur fx

30
Q

Critical musculoskeletal injuries

A

Multiple open fx of limbs

Suspected pelvic fx w/ hemodynamic instability

31
Q

6 Ps of musculoskeletal assessment

A
Pain
Paralysis
Paresthesia
Pulselessness
Pallor
Pressure
32
Q

Hazards associated w/ improper stabilization of splints

A

Compression of nerves, tissues, and blood vessels
Delay in transport of a pt w/ light-threatening injury
Reduction of distal circulation
Aggravation of the injury
Injury to tissue, nerves, blood vessels, or muscles due to excessive movement of bone or joint

33
Q

Do not use PASG if any of the following exist :

A
Pregnancy
Pulmonary edema
Acute heart failure
Penetrating chest injuries
Groin injuries
Major head injuries
34
Q

Management of compartment syndrome

A

Elevated extremity
Ice packs
Opening or loosening constrictive clothing and splint material
Administer oxygen
IV access. Crystalloid solution as needed
Immediate transport

35
Q

Management of crush syndrome

A

Assess ABCs
Supplemental oxygen as needed
Consider bolus of crystalloid solution to increase intravascular volume

36
Q

s/s of DVT

A

Swelling in extremity
Discomfort that worsens with use
Warmth and erythema of extremity

37
Q

s/s PE

A
sudden onset of dyspnea 
pleuritic CP
tachypnea
tachycardia
right sided heart failure
shock
cardiac arrest
38
Q

s/s of fat embolism

A
Appear 12-72 hours after injury
tachycardia
dyspnea
tachypnea
pulmonary congestion
fever
petechiae
AMS
organ dysfunction
39
Q

How to manage an elbow injury if limb is pulseless?

A

Apply gentle manual traction. If pulse does not return after one attempt, splint the limb in the most comfortable position. If pulse is restored, splint in whatever position allows the strongest pulse.

40
Q

lateral compression pelvic ring disruption

A

Internally rotated around the sacrum
Volume of pelvis decreases
Other regions of body injured

41
Q

open book pelvic fracture

A

anterior-posterior compression pelvic ring disruption from head-on injuries
significant blood loss

42
Q

vertical shear

A

Major force applied to the pelvis from above or below.
Anterior components : fx of rami or disruption of symphysis pubis
posterior component : fx of ilium or sacrum or disruption of sacroiliac joint
shortening of affected side
massive hemorrhage into pelvis

43
Q

straddle fx

A

Fall when a person lands in the region of the perineum and sustains b/l fx of interior and superior rami

44
Q

open pelvic fx

A

life-threatening
laceration of skin in pelvic region, vagina, or rectum
high-velocity injury w/ subsequent massive hemorrhage

45
Q

Management of pelvic fx

A
Monitor ABCs
Immobilize spine
IV access ( two if possible)
Seek medical direction
Stabilization of pelvis
Immobilize to long board
Transport to trauma center
46
Q

signs of posterior dislocated hip

A

foot drop
hip joint flexed
internal rotation

47
Q

signs of anterior dislocation hip

A

Extended straight out

Externally rotated

48
Q

splinting dislocated hips

A

position of deformity
supine on scoop stretcher
support affected limb w/ pillows or rolled blankets
secure limb to backboard

49
Q

Management of femur fx

A
Assess CMS
Splint LE
Oxygen as needed
Establish IV access
20-mL/kg bolus of isotonic crystalloid solution to maintain radial pulses