Pediatric Disorders Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step Two > Pediatric Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatric Disorders Deck (98)
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31

toxoplasmosis diagnosis and management

jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, microcephaly, chroioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, seizures

treatment: maternal treatment during pregnancy with spiramycin, infants treated with sulfonamide or pyrimethamine for first 6 months of life

32

congenital rubella

blueberry muffin rash, PDA, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, cataracts, congenital hearing loss, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia

33

babies lose weight in the first few days after birth, when is original birth weight regained by

2 weeks of age

34

when does birth weight double by

4 months

35

what does birth weight triple by

12 months

36

when does birth weight quadruple by

24 months

37

birth height increases by 50% by this time

1 year

38

birth height doubles by this time

4 years

39

birth height triples by this time

13 years

40

how much does head circumference grow by during 0-3 months

5 cm

41

how much does head circumference grow by during 3-6 months

4 cm

42

how much does head circumference grow by during 6-9 months

2 cm

43

how much does head circumference grow by during 9-12 months

1 cm

44

car seat guidelines

< 1 year and < 20 pounds: face backward in the middle seat

> 1 year AND > 20 pounds: may face forward

> 40 pounds: move into booster seat until seatbelt still functions properly (4' 9")

45

how much calories are in breast milk and formula?

20 kcal/ounce for both

46

what is the caloric requirements in babies younger than 6 months

100-120 kcal/kg/day

47

what workup should be performed in infant with single umbilical artery

obtain renal sonogram to check for anomalies

48

caput v. cephalohematoma

caput: diffuse swelling/edema of the scalp that crosses suture lines and resolves within a few days

cephalohematoma: does not cross suture lines, resolves within weeks-months, increases likelihood of jaundice, more common with vacuum deliveries

49

harlequin color change

intense reddening of gravity dependent side, may be due to immature autonomic system, completely benign and will resolve in days-weeks

50

macular stains (stork bites)

permanent vascular malformations on nape of neck, upper eyelids, and middle of forehead, benign but permanent

51

SIDS

usually occurs 2-4 months of age
associated with low birth weight, prone sleeping position, sleeping on soft surface, overheating

prevention methods: supine position, pacifier use

52

when does anterior fontanelle close

96% by 24 months
if delayed, consider down sydrome, rickets, achondroplasia, congenital hypothyroidism
if closes too early, monitor for craniosynostosis

53

PFAPA syndrome

benign 4-5 day syndrome consisting of periodic fever, aphthous ulcers, pharyngitis, and adenitis, occurs monthly, usually affects preschool-aged children

treatment: glucocorticoides, maybe cimetidine

54

pertussis

7-10 days incubation period
mild URI symptoms precede paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whoop, and post-tussive emesis (can go on for weeks)

treatment: erythromycin/azithromycin, TMP-SMX

55

additional work-up in child diagnosed with UTI

voiding cystourethrogram and renal U/S in boys all ages or girls younger than 3, children with febrile or recurrent UTIs

56

2-3 mm yellow pustules with red base arising in first 24-72 hours after birth, pustular contents reveal numerous eosinophils

erythema toxicum

57

spider-webbing/marbling of the skin, benign condition

cutis marmorata

58

intense redding of gravity dependent side and blanching of the nondependent side with a line of demarcation between the two, lasting seconds-minutes

harlequin color change

59

due to accumulation of sweat beneath eccrine sweat ducts that are obstructed by keratin at the stratum corneum

milia

60

what medication is used for measles

vitamin A, possibly ribavirin