Flashcards in Political Restoration and Reform: Revolutionary Movements Deck (16)
What was the Spanish political system like after the Napoleonic Wars?
King Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne after the collapse of French control. He was restored on the condition he honor the liberal constitution of 1812 drawn by the Cortes (the Spanish Parliament). However, when Ferdinand was restored to the throne, he dissolved the Cortes and persecuted liberals.
How did rebellion begin in Spain? How did it end?
Army officers revolted, soon joined by the Spanish middle class. Although Ferdinand agreed to the laws of the constitution to end the rebellion, a French army with the approval of Russia, Prussia, and Austria restored Ferdinand to power; Great Britain refused to consent to directly interfering in the rebellions of other nations.
Which city-state in Italy saw a rebellion occur? Why?
Naples. It occurred after Neapolitan army officers joined with the bourgeoisie and secret nationalist groups like the Carbonari to oppose King Ferdinand of Naples, who reneged on his promise to give up absolutist powers.
What did the Neapolitan rebellion result in?
Metternich, fearing Italian nationalism, called the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia to create the Troppau Protocol, which allowed the great European powers to intervene in revolutionary situations, although Great Britain once again declined. The next year the rebellion in Naples was put down by Austrian troops.
Why did Western countries want the Greek revolt against the Ottoman Empire to succeed?
They viewed it romantically as the birthplace of democracy and wanted to free it from Eastern despotism. Western countries also had economic ties in Greece, and sought to protect the persecution of Christians.
How was Greece liberated?
A combined naval force of Britain, France, and Russia intervened on the side of the Greek revolutionaries and allowed Greece to declare independence.
What problems did the Greek revolt reveal about the Ottoman Empire?
It started the Eastern Question, or what should be done about the increasingly weak Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was breaking down after a series of rulers who could not keep the different ethnic groups united?
What was another group in the Balkans that broke away from the Ottoman Empire?
The Serbians established effective independence by 1830. The independent Serbian state promoted nationalism in the Balkan regions of Austria, which ultimately led to the ethnic conflicts of WWI.
Which Russian ruler's death caused confusion? What occurred during the confusion?
Alexander I. When his brother refused the throne, Nicholas I took power. A group of military officers staged a revolt in favor of his brother Constantine with liberal beliefs called the Decembrist Revolt. It was brutally crushed.
What was the result of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars on political reform in England?
A backlash emerged against political reform. The governing elite were wary of possible social unrest owing to the economic downturn after the Napoleonic wars.
What was the Peterloo Massacre?
It was an event where soldiers shot at a peaceful protest in Manchester that demanded political changes, including universal male suffrage and annual parliaments.
What act was passed in response to the Peterloo Massacre?
Parliament passed the repressive Six Acts, which banned demonstrations and imposed censorship.
How did the environment of reform improve?
Parliament repealed the Combination Act, which banned union activity. Restrictions on Catholics were lifted for government posts. The Great Reform Bill was passed in 1832.
What was part of the Great Reform Bill? What were its effects?
It expanded the electorate to include those who became wealthy from industrialization. It reduced the sparsely populated electoral districts. It showed that political reform was possible.
What act symbolized the way the poor were treated?
The Poor Law of 1834 forced the destitute to enter workhouses where conditions were purposefully miserable to discourage people from seeking assistance.