PSL301: Cardio 6 Flashcards Preview

PSL301 > PSL301: Cardio 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PSL301: Cardio 6 Deck (58):
1

How much blood goes into the heart each pump?

0.2 L/min

2

How much blood goes into the brain each pump?

0.7 L/min

3

Which part of the body does blood flow stay constant?

Brain

4

Where does the most blood get distributed to?

Liver

5

Where do 1/4 of the CO get wired to?

Kidneys
Skeletal muscles

6

What directly affects EDV?

Venous return

7

What affects venous return?

1. Blood volume
2. Intrathoracic pressure
3. Venous pressure

8

At the capillaries, blood always picks the vessel with the lowest...

resistance

9

When one capillary is pinched off, the overall __ is unchanged

flow

10

Pressure in ventricle varies from...

10 mmHg to 120 mmHg

11

Formula: MAP

MAP = diastolic P + 1/3(systolic P - diastolic P)
= 2/3(diastolic P) + 1/3(systolic P)

12

MAP is better known as...

Average blood pressure

13

Arteries store pressure from left ventricle contraction, then uses ___ to send blood to the rest of the body during ventricular diastole

elastic recoil

14

Formula: pulse pressure

systolic P - diastolic P

15

MAP is a function of...

CO
Resistance

16

Define: pulse

Pressure wave of circulating blood

17

Where can pulses be felt?
(specific)

- temperal artery
- facial artery
- carotid arter
- brachial artery
- radial artery
- femoral artery
- popliteal artery
- posterior tibial artery
- dosalis pedis artery

18

Where can pulses be felt? (general)

pressure points

19

What sounds are heard while measuring blood pressure?

Korotkoff sounds

20

5 Korotkoff sounds

1. Snap: systolic pressure
2. Murmurs
3. Taps
4. Thumping / muting: 10 mmHg above diastolic
5. Silence: diastolic

21

Stages of hypertension

1. Normal
2. Hypertension stage 1
3. Hypertension stage 2
4. Hypertensive crisis (emergency!!)

22

What is normal blood pressure?

less than 120
Less than 80

23

(Pre)-hypertension ____ CVD risk

Increases
Positive correlation

24

MAP is determined by...

1. Blood volume
2. CO
3. Resistance
4. Distribution of blood between arteriole & venous system

(1) and (4) are usually pretty consistant

25

2 responses to increased blood pressure?
(which one is slow/fast?)

1. Cardio compensation (fast)
2. Kidney compensation (slow)

26

How does the cardio system compensate for high blood pressure?

- vasodilation
- decreased CO

27

How does the renal system compensate for high blood pressure?

More fluid excreted in urine
Renin-angiotensin system

28

Baroreceptors are located at the...

Major arteries
- Aortic arch
- Carotid sinus

29

What is the baroreflex?

response to increased / decreased BP
Sensed by baroreceptors

30

At normal state, what is the baroreflex like?

Baroreceptors fire at constant rate

31

When BP is increased, the firing of baroreceptors...

increase

32

Baroreceptors report to...

cardiovascular control center in medulla oblongata

33

alpha-receptor for NE causes...
beta-receptor for NE causes...

vasodilation
vasoconstriction

34

Ultimately, what lowers the BP?

- Decreased peripheral resistance
- Decreased CO

35

Orthostatic hypotension

"head rush"
Decrease in BP due to standing up
Blood has pooled in the feet, so not enough going to head

36

What secretes renin?

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

37

Purpose of renin

Angiotensinogen -> ANG I

38

What cleaves ANG I -> ANG II

ACE

39

What does ANG II do?

- Vasoconstrict vessels by binding to AT1 receptors in blood vessels
- Stimulates production of aldosterone at adrenal cortex by binding to AT1 receptors in adrenal gland

40

Where is aldosterone produced?

adrenal cortex

41

Where is the adrenal cortex located?

on top of the kidney

42

What does aldosterone do?

Tells kidneys to retain salt & water

43

The cleaving of ANG I -> ANG II happens at the...

lungs

44

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) is only activated...

chronic low blood pressure

45

Where is ACE found?

in the lungs

46

Purpose of RAAS?

Raise blood pressure & volume

47

Where does aldosterone act?

at kidneys

48

Aldosterone is a part of the __ family

steroid

49

How does aldosterone increase salt and water retention at the kidneys?

Increase expression of Na/K pumps & Na channels on collecting duct

Pumps Na to ISF -> blood

50

What receptor does ANG II bind to?

AT1

51

Is it possible for angiotensinogen -> ANG II directly?

Yes (alternate pathway)

52

During the reaction with ACE, bradykinin ->

inactive fragments

53

Feedback in the RAAS is from...

- Na intake
- Decreased renin secretion

54

ANF is produced by...when...

Atria in response to high blood pressure

55

ANF

Atrial natriuretic factor

56

What does ANF do?

1. Vasodilation
2. Decrease renin production
(Promote water & salt secretion)

57

Abbreviations for atrial natriuretic factor

ANF / ANP / ANH

58

__ antagonizes the effects of ANG II

ANF