Flashcards in PSL301: Cardio 6 Deck (58):
How much blood goes into the heart each pump?
How much blood goes into the brain each pump?
Which part of the body does blood flow stay constant?
Where does the most blood get distributed to?
Where do 1/4 of the CO get wired to?
What directly affects EDV?
What affects venous return?
1. Blood volume
2. Intrathoracic pressure
3. Venous pressure
At the capillaries, blood always picks the vessel with the lowest...
When one capillary is pinched off, the overall __ is unchanged
Pressure in ventricle varies from...
10 mmHg to 120 mmHg
MAP = diastolic P + 1/3(systolic P - diastolic P)
= 2/3(diastolic P) + 1/3(systolic P)
MAP is better known as...
Average blood pressure
Arteries store pressure from left ventricle contraction, then uses ___ to send blood to the rest of the body during ventricular diastole
Formula: pulse pressure
systolic P - diastolic P
MAP is a function of...
Pressure wave of circulating blood
Where can pulses be felt?
- temperal artery
- facial artery
- carotid arter
- brachial artery
- radial artery
- femoral artery
- popliteal artery
- posterior tibial artery
- dosalis pedis artery
Where can pulses be felt? (general)
What sounds are heard while measuring blood pressure?
5 Korotkoff sounds
1. Snap: systolic pressure
4. Thumping / muting: 10 mmHg above diastolic
5. Silence: diastolic
Stages of hypertension
2. Hypertension stage 1
3. Hypertension stage 2
4. Hypertensive crisis (emergency!!)
What is normal blood pressure?
less than 120
Less than 80
(Pre)-hypertension ____ CVD risk
MAP is determined by...
1. Blood volume
4. Distribution of blood between arteriole & venous system
(1) and (4) are usually pretty consistant
2 responses to increased blood pressure?
(which one is slow/fast?)
1. Cardio compensation (fast)
2. Kidney compensation (slow)
How does the cardio system compensate for high blood pressure?
- decreased CO
How does the renal system compensate for high blood pressure?
More fluid excreted in urine
Baroreceptors are located at the...
- Aortic arch
- Carotid sinus
What is the baroreflex?
response to increased / decreased BP
Sensed by baroreceptors
At normal state, what is the baroreflex like?
Baroreceptors fire at constant rate
When BP is increased, the firing of baroreceptors...
Baroreceptors report to...
cardiovascular control center in medulla oblongata
alpha-receptor for NE causes...
beta-receptor for NE causes...
Ultimately, what lowers the BP?
- Decreased peripheral resistance
- Decreased CO
Decrease in BP due to standing up
Blood has pooled in the feet, so not enough going to head
What secretes renin?
Purpose of renin
Angiotensinogen -> ANG I
What cleaves ANG I -> ANG II
What does ANG II do?
- Vasoconstrict vessels by binding to AT1 receptors in blood vessels
- Stimulates production of aldosterone at adrenal cortex by binding to AT1 receptors in adrenal gland
Where is aldosterone produced?
Where is the adrenal cortex located?
on top of the kidney
What does aldosterone do?
Tells kidneys to retain salt & water
The cleaving of ANG I -> ANG II happens at the...
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) is only activated...
chronic low blood pressure
Where is ACE found?
in the lungs
Purpose of RAAS?
Raise blood pressure & volume
Where does aldosterone act?
Aldosterone is a part of the __ family
How does aldosterone increase salt and water retention at the kidneys?
Increase expression of Na/K pumps & Na channels on collecting duct
Pumps Na to ISF -> blood
What receptor does ANG II bind to?
Is it possible for angiotensinogen -> ANG II directly?
Yes (alternate pathway)
During the reaction with ACE, bradykinin ->
Feedback in the RAAS is from...
- Na intake
- Decreased renin secretion
ANF is produced by...when...
Atria in response to high blood pressure
Atrial natriuretic factor
What does ANF do?
2. Decrease renin production
(Promote water & salt secretion)
Abbreviations for atrial natriuretic factor
ANF / ANP / ANH