PSL301: Cardio 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSL301: Cardio 7 Deck (58):
1

List the chemicals that cause vasoconstriction

- NE binding to a-receptors
- ANG II

2

List the chemicals that cause vasodilation

- E binding to B2-receptors
- Adenosine
- Natriuretic peptides
- low O, high CO2, high H+, high K+

3

Physiological role of NE (a-receptor)

Baroreflex

4

Physiological role of ANG II

Increase blood pressure

5

Physiological role of E (B2-receptor)

Increased blood flow / dilation

6

Physiological role of adenosine

Increase blood flow to match metabolism

7

Physiological role of natriuretic peptides

Reduce blood pressure

8

Physiological role of low O2, high CO2, high H+, high K+

Increase blood flow to match metabolism

9

NE is a type of...

NT

10

ANG II is a type of...

Hormone

11

E is a type of...

NT

12

Adenosine is a type of...

Paracrine signal

13

Low O2, high CO2, high H+, High K+ is a type of...

Paracine signal

14

Natriuretic peptides are types of...

Hormones
NT

15

Source of NE

sympathetic neurons

16

Source of ANG II

Plasma hormone ANG I

17

Source of E

Adrenal medulla

18

Source of adenosine

hypoxic cells

19

Source of low O2, high CO2, high H+, high K+

Cell metabolism

20

Source of natriuretic peptides

Atrial myocardium
Brain

21

The difference of effects for E and NE depend on...

the receptor

22

Define: hyperemia

Locally mediated increase in blood flow

23

What happens during active hyperemia?

1. Release of (metabolic) vasodilators into ECF
2. Arterioles dilate
3. Decrease resistance & increase blood flow
4. More supplies given to the metabolically active cell
5. Blood flow eventually washes vasodilators away

24

2 types of hyperemia

1. Active
2. Reactive

25

What happens during reactive hyperemia?

1. Cells release metabolic vasodilators into ECF
2. There is an something blocking the blood vessel going to that tissue
3. Arterioles will dilate until occlusion is removed
4. Decreased resistance & increased blood flow
5. Blood will carry the vasodilators away over time

26

Which are metabolic vasodilators?

- Adenosine
- Low O2
- High CO2
- High H+

27

NE binding to a-receptors cause vasodilation/vasoconstriction?

Vasoconstriction

28

Capillary density is related to...

metabolic activity of cells

29

Bone marrow, liver, spleen do not have capillaries. Instead, they have...

sinusoids

30

Sinusoids

Capillary-like vessels at the bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Large gaps that allow proteins and RBC to move across.

31

How many capillaries are there?

> 10 billion

32

SA of capillaries?

500 - 700 m2

33

2 types of capillaries

1. Continuous
2. Fenestrated

34

What are the gaps between continuous capillaries? Fenestrated ones?

- Leaky junctions / endothelial cell junctions
- Endothelial cell junctions & fenestrations

35

Difference b/t continuous and fenestrated capillaries?

Continuous:
- inner lining smooth
- endothelial cell junctions only
- only solutes can pass through

Fenestrated:
- rough inner lining
- also have fenestrations
- allow high volumes to flow through

36

Where can continuous capillaries be found?

muscles
neural tissues
connective tissues

37

Where can fenestrated capillaries be found?

kidneys
intestines

38

Relationship between total x-section area and velocity of flow

Higher area = lower velocity of flow

39

Exchange between plasma & ISF occurs by ___ pathway or ___ transport

paracellular
endothelial

40

Small dissolved solutes and gasses move by __

diffusion (go through cell without a vesicle)

41

Large solutes & proteins move by ___

vesicular transport

42

Paracellular pathway

Substance passes through space between endothelial cells

43

Endothelial transport

Substance passes through an endothelial layer by going through endothelial cells

44

At capillaries, large proteins are transported by...

transcytosis

45

Define: bulk flow

Mass movement of fluid as a result of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure gradients

46

Filtration occurs at __ end; absorption occurs at __ end

Arteriole
Venous

47

Define: filtration

Fluid movement out of blood

48

Define: absorption

Fluid movement into blood

49

How do lipid insoluble substances cross capillary walls?

Through intercellular cleft

50

Intercellular cleft

Space between endothelial cells (paracellular pathway)

51

Permeability of capillary pores for difference substances varies according to...

How big the molecule is

52

Capillary permeability depend on...

1. size of molecule
2. type of capillary

53

What is the space between cells called?

Interstitium

54

What is the fluid in the interstitium called?

ISF

55

Interstitium

space between cells

56

2 major solid structures in interstitium

1. Collagen fibres
2. Proteoglycan fillaments

57

Proteoglycan filaments

coiled molecules composed of hyaluronic acid

58

Most of the ISF is composed of...

1. fluid proteoglycan mixtures (gel)
2. some free fluid (very little amount)