PSL301: Respiratory 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSL301: Respiratory 2 Deck (72)
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1

Tachypnea

rapid breathing

2

Tachycardia

rapid heart rate

3

Cyanosis

Person turns blue, especially under the nails

4

Trachypnea, tachycardia, grunting when expiring, and cyanosis are symptoms of...

Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn

5

Treatment for respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn

Artificial surfactants
Respirator

6

Boyle's Law

P1V1 = P2V2

7

relationship between pressure and volume

Inversely proportional

8

How does air get into lungs?

Diaphragm contracts, increasing thoracic volume = decreasing thoracic pressure.
Atm pressure > alveolar pressure
Air flow down pressure gradient

9

How does air get out of the lungs?

Diaphragm relaxes, decreasing thoracic volume = increasing thoracic pressure.
Atm pressure < alveolar pressure
Air flow down pressure gradient

10

Diaphragm is controlled by __ nerve

phrenic nerve

11

Where is the phrenic nerve located?

spinal segments C3, C4, C5

12

Scalenes are attached to the...

first 2 ribs

13

sternocleidomastoids are attached to the...

sternum

14

Inspiratory muscles consist of...

external intercostals
sternocleidomastoids
scalenes

15

The rib cage can increase in dimension in 2 ways

1. anterior-posterior (pump handle)
2. lateral (bucket handle)

16

When are expiratory muscles used?

- voluntary expiration
- fast breathing frequency

17

Internal intercostals effect on rib cage during expiration

contract -> force rib cage inwards

18

Abdominal muscles effect on rib cage during expiration

contract -> force rib cage inward & force abdomen into thoracic cavity to decrease lung volume

19

How does the movement of diaphragm and rib cage affect the lungs when they are not attached to the thoracic wall?

Fluid in pleural cavity has enough surface tension, and act as glue

20

Intrapleural pressure

Pressure in pleural cavity

21

Intrapleural pressure is always POSITIVE / NEGATIVE with respect to atm pressure and alveolar pressure

negative

22

Volume of pleural cavity

15 mL

23

The inner membrane of the pleura is called...

visceral pleura

24

The outer membrane of the pleura is called...

Parietal pleura

25

Are expiratory muscles normally used?

No, expiration is usually a passive process

26

What creates the intrapleural pressure?

The opposing forces between the chest wanting to expand and the lungs wanting to collapse

27

___ of the chest wall tries to pull chest outwards

elastic recoil

28

____ of the lungs creates an inward pull

elastic recoil

29

Pneumothorax

Collapsed lung
Puncture in the intrapleural cavity makes it atm = no more glue

chest and lungs do whatever they want:
chest expand out
lungs collapse in

30

Treatment for penumothroax

- wet dressing to wound (air in pleural cavity can only flow outwards)
- CPR to re-inflate lungs