Flashcards in PSL301: Cardio 1 Deck (70):
Main functions of the circulatory system
2. Remove metabolic byproducts
3. Maintain homeostasis by O and nutrient supply
4. Regulate body temperature
5. Humoral communication
Transport of hormones to the correct location
Communication using hormones
Wastes move from __ to ___
liver for processing
Immune cells, antibodies, clotting proteins move from __ to ___
blood (already there)
cells that need them
stored nutrients move from __ to ___
liver & adipose tissue
nutrients & water move from __ to ___
The aorta splits into...
Liver gets fresh blood from...
Pelvis & legs gets fresh blood from...
Heart is composed mostly of...
Membrane sac that is fluid filled
Connective tissue encasing for the heart
Holds the heart in place
The heart is held by...
The bulk of the heart is made up of...
List all the valves in the heart
1. Bicuspid (mitral) valve
2. Tricuspid valve
3. Pulmonary valve
4. Aortic valve
Bicuspid valve separates...
Left atrium / left ventricle
Tricuspid valve separates...
Right atrium / right ventricle
Pulmonary valve separates...
Right ventricle / pulmonary arteries
Aortic valve separates...
Left ventricle / aorta
Bi- & tricuspid valves are...
___ re-enforces AV valves
Chordae tendinae are attached to...
muscular projections within the ventricles (papillary muscles)
How many "cups" does the semilunar vavles have?
Posterior of the heart is ___
Anterior is ___
Flat (face away from us)
Pointed (face towards us)
Function of AV valves
Closed during ventricular contraction to prevent backflow from ventricles -> aorta
Function of semilunar valves
Closed during ventricular relaxation to prevent backflow from arteries -> ventricles
Superior vena cava gets blood from...
Top half of the body
Inferior vena cava gets blood from...
Bottom half of the body
What supplies O and nutrients to the heart?
1. Left coronary artery
2. Left cardiac vein
3. Right coronary artery
4. Right cardiac vein
Circulation of blood within the heart
Flow of blood between the heart and lungs
Flow of blood between the heart and cells of the body
What flows into the inferior vena cava?
Fresh blood going into the arms comes from...
Abdominal aorta transitions into...
Fresh blood going into the head comes from...
Blood pressure is highest in the ___
Which ventricle has thicker walls, and why?
Needed to generate greater force to pump blood to entire body (longer route)
Blood pressure decreases as x-sectional area of the different vessels ____
Pressure exerted on walls of container by fluid inside container
Hydrostatic pressure is proportional to...
Height of column??
When fluid if flowing through a system, pressure falls as a function of...
Driving pressure is created by the...
Pressure that is used to move blood throughout the body
Flow is proportional to...
Pressure gradient (change in pressure)
Fluid only flows if there is a ____ pressure gradient
Positive (area of higher pressure -> area of lower pressure)
Flow is inversely proportional to...
Resistance depends on...
Difference between velocity and flow
Velocity: rate of flow
V = Q/A
The ___ the vessel, the faster the velocity
Flow = pressure gradient / resistance
MAP = CO x peripheral resistance
How are pressure differences generated?
Describe myocardial muscle cells
- 1 nucleus
- Attached head-to-foot-
- Joined by intercalated disks
Specialized junctions between myocardial muscle cells
Myocyte contraction is dependent on...
Which gates are opened first by Ca++? Opened next?
1. L-type Ca++ channel
2. RyR (on SR)
How many molecules are involved in excitation-contraction sequence?
Accumulation of Ca++ sparks lead to...
Transient Ca++ signal
Ca++ ions bind to ___ to initiate muscle contraction
Relaxation of muscle occurs when...
Ca++ unbinds from troponin
How is Ca++ removed from myocyte when muscle is done contracting?
1. Ca++ ATPase transport it back to SR
2. NCX pumps 1 Ca++ out and 3 Na+ in
How is the Na+ pumped in by the NCX removed?
Na+K+ ATPase pumps 3 Na+ out for 2 K+ in
Compare cardiac muscle to skeletal muscle
1. CM is smaller, branches
2. CM have 1 nucleus
3. CM have intercalated disks
4. CM contracts slower
5. CM has graded contractions
6. CM controlled by ANS; SM controlled by SNS
7. CM is regulated by E, SM is not regulated by hormones
8. T-tubules in CM are larger and branch more
9. CM has smaller SR
___ allow force to be transferred in CM
____ allow electrical signals to be transferred in CM
Mitochondria occupy ___ of cell vol in myocardium
causes atria to contract