PSL301: Cardio 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSL301: Cardio 1 Deck (70):
1

Main functions of the circulatory system

1. Transport
2. Remove metabolic byproducts
3. Maintain homeostasis by O and nutrient supply
4. Regulate body temperature
5. Humoral communication

2

Humoral communication

Transport of hormones to the correct location
Communication using hormones

3

Wastes move from __ to ___

cells
liver for processing

4

Immune cells, antibodies, clotting proteins move from __ to ___

blood (already there)
cells that need them

5

stored nutrients move from __ to ___

liver & adipose tissue
all cells

6

nutrients & water move from __ to ___

intestinal tract
all cells

7

The aorta splits into...

Ascending arteries
Abdominal aorta

8

Liver gets fresh blood from...

hepatic artery

9

Pelvis & legs gets fresh blood from...

descending arteries

10

Heart is composed mostly of...

myocardium

11

Pericardium

Membrane sac that is fluid filled
Connective tissue encasing for the heart
Holds the heart in place

12

The heart is held by...

pericardium

13

The bulk of the heart is made up of...

ventricles

14

Myocardium

Cardiac muscle

15

List all the valves in the heart

1. Bicuspid (mitral) valve
2. Tricuspid valve
3. Pulmonary valve
4. Aortic valve

16

Bicuspid valve separates...

Left atrium / left ventricle

17

Tricuspid valve separates...

Right atrium / right ventricle

18

Pulmonary valve separates...

Right ventricle / pulmonary arteries

19

Aortic valve separates...

Left ventricle / aorta

20

Bi- & tricuspid valves are...

atrioventricular valves

21

___ re-enforces AV valves

Chordae tendinae

22

Chordae tendinae are attached to...

muscular projections within the ventricles (papillary muscles)

23

How many "cups" does the semilunar vavles have?

3

24

Posterior of the heart is ___
Anterior is ___

Flat (face away from us)
Pointed (face towards us)

25

Function of AV valves

Closed during ventricular contraction to prevent backflow from ventricles -> aorta

26

Function of semilunar valves

Closed during ventricular relaxation to prevent backflow from arteries -> ventricles

27

Superior vena cava gets blood from...

Top half of the body

28

Inferior vena cava gets blood from...

Bottom half of the body

29

What supplies O and nutrients to the heart?

1. Left coronary artery
2. Left cardiac vein
3. Right coronary artery
4. Right cardiac vein

30

Coronary circulation

Circulation of blood within the heart

31

Pulmonary ciruclation

Flow of blood between the heart and lungs

32

Systemic circulation

Flow of blood between the heart and cells of the body

33

What flows into the inferior vena cava?

Ascending veins

34

Fresh blood going into the arms comes from...

Ascending arteries

35

Abdominal aorta transitions into...

Descending arteries

36

Fresh blood going into the head comes from...

Ascending arteries

37

Blood pressure is highest in the ___

aorta

38

Which ventricle has thicker walls, and why?

Left
Needed to generate greater force to pump blood to entire body (longer route)

39

Blood pressure decreases as x-sectional area of the different vessels ____

increase

40

Hydrostatic pressure

Pressure exerted on walls of container by fluid inside container

41

Hydrostatic pressure is proportional to...

Height of column??

42

When fluid if flowing through a system, pressure falls as a function of...

distance??

43

Driving pressure is created by the...

ventricles

44

Driving pressure

Pressure that is used to move blood throughout the body

45

Flow is proportional to...

Pressure gradient (change in pressure)

46

Fluid only flows if there is a ____ pressure gradient

Positive (area of higher pressure -> area of lower pressure)

47

Flow is inversely proportional to...

Resistance

48

Resistance depends on...

1. Length
3. Viscosity
3. Radius

49

Difference between velocity and flow

Flow: volume/time
Velocity: rate of flow

50

Formula: velocity

V = Q/A

51

The ___ the vessel, the faster the velocity

Narrower

52

Formula: flow

Flow = pressure gradient / resistance

53

Formula: MAP

MAP = CO x peripheral resistance

54

How are pressure differences generated?

Cardiac contraction

55

Describe myocardial muscle cells

- Branched
- 1 nucleus
- Attached head-to-foot-
- Joined by intercalated disks

56

Intercalated disks

Specialized junctions between myocardial muscle cells

57

Myocyte contraction is dependent on...

Ca++
Actin-myosin ineraction

58

Which gates are opened first by Ca++? Opened next?

1. L-type Ca++ channel
2. RyR (on SR)

59

How many molecules are involved in excitation-contraction sequence?

8

60

Accumulation of Ca++ sparks lead to...

Transient Ca++ signal

61

Ca++ ions bind to ___ to initiate muscle contraction

troponin

62

Relaxation of muscle occurs when...

Ca++ unbinds from troponin

63

How is Ca++ removed from myocyte when muscle is done contracting?

1. Ca++ ATPase transport it back to SR
2. NCX pumps 1 Ca++ out and 3 Na+ in

64

How is the Na+ pumped in by the NCX removed?

Na+K+ ATPase pumps 3 Na+ out for 2 K+ in

65

Compare cardiac muscle to skeletal muscle

1. CM is smaller, branches
2. CM have 1 nucleus
3. CM have intercalated disks
4. CM contracts slower
5. CM has graded contractions
6. CM controlled by ANS; SM controlled by SNS
7. CM is regulated by E, SM is not regulated by hormones
8. T-tubules in CM are larger and branch more
9. CM has smaller SR

66

___ allow force to be transferred in CM

desmosomes

67

____ allow electrical signals to be transferred in CM

gap junctions

68

Mitochondria occupy ___ of cell vol in myocardium

1/2

69

SA node

Indicates heartbeat
causes atria to contract

70

AV node

conveys stimulus from SA node to ventricles
Initiates ventricle contraction