PSL301: Respiratory 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSL301: Respiratory 1 Deck (72):
1

What lung structures are affected during an asthma attack?

Muscles around bronchi constrict; very difficult to get air in and out

2

If a lung function test was observed during an asthma attack, what would be seen?

FEV/FVC ratio is decreased; can only get a very small % of the air in their lungs out in 1 second

3

Functions of the respiratory system

1. Transfer gas between air and blood
2. Regulate pH
3. Defense from inhaled pathogens
4. Volcalization

4

3 exchanges occur in the respiratory system. what are they?

1. between atomosphere and lungs
2. between lungs and blood
3. between blood and cells

5

The respiratory system is divided into the...

upper respiratory tract
lower respiratory tract

6

What divides the upper and lower respiratory tract?

trachea (part of lower)

7

Order air goes through to get to the lungs

1. Nasal cavity / mouth
2. pharynx
3. vocal cords / larynx / esophagus
4. trachea
5. primary bonchi
6. secondary bronchi
7. bronchiole
8. alveoli

8

What structure is shared between the digestive and respiratory systems?

pharynx

9

Difference between internal & external intercostals

Orientation
internal: vertical to ribs
external: horizontal to ribs

10

List the muscles of inspiration

1. sternocleidomastoids
2. scalenes
3. external intercostals
4. diaphragm

11

List the muscles of expiration

1. internal intercostals
2. abdominal muscles

12

___ enclose the lungs

pleural sacs

13

What are the pleural sacs?

double membrane that covers each lung separately
space between the membranes = pleural cavity

14

The pleural cavities are filled with...

fluid

15

The primary bronchi divides more than ___ times to reach alveoli

22

16

Purpose of the airway

1. warm air to 37 C
2. humidify to 100%
3. filter out particles

17

What filters out the particles in the air?

nose hair & respiratory cilia

18

What secretes mucus?

goblet cells

19

Where are goblet cells located?

between ciliated endothelial cells

20

What allows the cilia to push mucus towards the pharynx?

watery saline layer

21

Which antibody disables pathogens in the respiratory system?

IgA

22

How many bifurcations are there in the conducting airways?

16

23

how many bifurcations are there in the primary lobule?

7

24

How many total bifurcations are there?

23

25

Cutpoints of the bifurcations in the conducting airways

1: primary bronchi
2-4: lobular bronchi
5-11: segmental bronchi
12-16: bronchiolar muscles

26

bifurcations 1-4 is supported by...

cartilage and smooth muscle

27

bifurcations 5-16 is supported by...

bronchiolar muscles

28

define: conducting airway

no gas exchange happens here

29

The conducting airways constitute an ___ because air in this area does not undergo gas exchange

anatomical dead space

30

define: anatomical dead space

volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange

31

Cutpoints of the primary lobule

17-19: respiratory bronchioles
20: alveolar ducts
21-23: alveolar sac

32

Velocity in primary lobule. Why?

Almost 0
Many branches; big x-sectional area

33

Distinguish between type I and type II alveolar cells

type I: make up structure of alveolar walls
type II: secrete surfactant to lower surface tension of water -> alveoli does not collapse

34

What is found in the areas between alveolar cells?

- elastic fibres
- capillaries
- alveolar macrophages

35

Alveolar gas exchange occurs by...

passive diffusion

36

Pulmonary circulation

right ventricle -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> capillaries -> pulmonary venules -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium

37

__% of blood volume goes to the lungs

10

38

The BP at the lungs is...

very low
25/8

39

Difference between pulmonary and systemic capillaries

Pulmonary: multiple capillary beds for 1 location
If embolus blocks 1 bed, gas exchange can still happen

Systemic: 1 bed of capillaries for 1 region
If this bed is blocked by embolus, the tissue infarcts

40

What defends the respiratory system from pathogens?

1. nose filters
2. mucous & cilia
3. antibodies on respiratory surfaces
4. macrophages in respiratory tract

41

How is lung function measured?

spirometry

42

spirometry measures the...

volume of the lungs

43

Normal lung volume

0.5L

44

total lung capacity for men

6L

45

total lung capacity for women

5L

46

VT =

tidal volume
how much air you breath in and out normally

47

IRV =

inspiratory reserve volume
Everything above VT

48

ERV =

expiratory reserve volume
Everything below VT

49

RV =

residual volume
~1.5L
Air that does not leave the lungs no matter how hard you breathe

50

VC =

vital capacity; the most you can breathe in and out

ERV + VT + IRV

51

IC =

inspiratory capacity

IRV + VT

52

FRC =

functional residual capcity

ERV + RV

53

Is IRV bigger or ERV?

IRV (2.5L vs. 1.5L)

54

TLC

total lung capacity
RV + ERV + VT + IRV

55

Capacities are ____, while volumes are ___

sums of different volumes
unique

56

The elderly have more/less ___ (what volume) than young people

more RV

57

Types of obstructive lung disease

1. early emphysema
2. severe emphysema
3. asthma

58

Emphysema

some of the air sacs in your lungs are damaged;
barrel chest

59

Emphysema have more/less ___ (what volume) than young people

more TLC caused by more RV

60

what are obstructive lung diseases

hard to get air out of lungs quickly, but you can still get enough oxygen

61

what are restrictive lung diseases?

Hard to move air in and out of lungs; might not be getting enough oxygen

62

types of restrictive lung diseases:

1. pulmonary fibrosis
2. neuromuscular disease
3. severe obesity

63

restrictive lung diseases have more/less ___ (what volume) than young people

Less TLC

64

Pulmonary fibrosis

damage causes your lungs to stiffen and makes breathing more and more difficult

Every volume is proportionally smaller

65

Neuromuscular disease lung function test

Very high RV
Low ERV
Low IRV

66

Severe obesity lung function test

Very low ERV

67

FEV =

forced expiratory volume

Inhale big, then how much air you can get out in 1 second if you try.

68

FVC

forced vital capacity

maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation

69

What does the ratio of FEV / FVC tell you?

in 1 second, how much of the air in your lungs you can get out

70

In restrictive lung disease, what does the FEV/FVC look like?

About the same as normal, because both FEV and FVC is decreased

71

In obstructive lung disease, what does FEV/FVC look like?

Ratio is much lower

72

What is the normal FEV/FVC ratio?

80%