PSL301: Water 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSL301: Water 8 Deck (63)
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1

UREMIA

a raised level in the blood of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds that are normally eliminated by the kidneys
= advanced kidney failure

2

clinical symptoms of uremia

- severe fatigue & weakness
- poor appetite, nausea, vomiting
- edema in feet, ankles
- itchy skin
- disturbed mental functions

3

Telltale biochemical marker of uremia

very high serum creatinine & urea levels (GFR < 10%)

4

What are the waste products excreted by urine?

mainly products of protein metabolism
- urea
- creatinine
- uric acid (urate)

many other small molecules excreted in small amounts

5

most abundant waste in urine

urea

6

amount of waste found in urine depends on...

how much protein is eaten

7

each urea has __ nitrogens

2

8

Waste products in urine are readily ____ and minimally ___

filtered;
reabsorbed

9

___ is generated from AA breakdown

ammonia

10

ammonia is highly...

toxic

11

to combat toxic effects of ammonia, it is converted to ___ in the ____. This is then excreted in the urine.

urea;
liver

12

steps of urea generation from ammonia

1. ammonia + CO2 -> carbamoyl phosphate
2. + L-ornithene -> citrulline
3. + L-aspartate -> arginosuccinate
4. -> L-Fumarate + L-Arginine
5. L-Arginine + H2O -> Urea + L-ornithene

13

enzyme: CO2 + NH3 -> carbamoyl phosphate

carbamoyl phosphate synthase

14

enzyme: carbamoyl phosphate + L-ornithene -> citrulline

ornithine carbamoyltransferase

15

enzyme: citrulline + L-aspartate -> arginosuccinate

arginosuccinate synthase

16

enzyme: arginosuccinate -> L-Fumarate + L-Arginine

argininosuccinate lysase

17

enzyme: L-Arginine + H2O -> Urea + L-ornithene

arginase

18

creatinine is generated from...

phosphocreatine -> creatine -> creatinine

19

PHOSPHOCREATINE

storage compound for energy in muscle

20

how many molecules of nitrogen does each creatinine molecule have?

2

21

enzyme: phosphocreatine -> creatine

creatine kinase

22

Uric acid is generated from...

nucleic acid break down
- uric acid = nitrogenous metabolite of purines

23

high concentrations of uric acid causes...

gout (type of arthritis)

24

gout typically occurs in the ___. It is caused by...

foot/ankles;
urate crystal deposition in joint fluids -> inflammation -> joint becomes swollen/tender/painful

25

enzyme: xanthine -> uric acid

xanthine oxidase

26

what is used to treat gout? why?

xathine oxidase inhibitors;
xathine oxidase is the enzyme that produces uric acid

27

some human studies suggest that a 60% GFR may be associated with...

increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease

28

___ and ___ are not toxic. The toxicity of low GFR is due to...

urea;
creatinine;
the small molecules that builds up in blood

29

endocrine functions of the kidney

1. renin
2. erythropoietin
3. vitamine D metabolism

30

renin is synthesized & secreted by...

cells of afferent arteriole