Flashcards in PSL301: Water 8 Deck (63)
a raised level in the blood of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds that are normally eliminated by the kidneys
= advanced kidney failure
clinical symptoms of uremia
- severe fatigue & weakness
- poor appetite, nausea, vomiting
- edema in feet, ankles
- itchy skin
- disturbed mental functions
Telltale biochemical marker of uremia
very high serum creatinine & urea levels (GFR < 10%)
What are the waste products excreted by urine?
mainly products of protein metabolism
- uric acid (urate)
many other small molecules excreted in small amounts
most abundant waste in urine
amount of waste found in urine depends on...
how much protein is eaten
each urea has __ nitrogens
Waste products in urine are readily ____ and minimally ___
___ is generated from AA breakdown
ammonia is highly...
to combat toxic effects of ammonia, it is converted to ___ in the ____. This is then excreted in the urine.
steps of urea generation from ammonia
1. ammonia + CO2 -> carbamoyl phosphate
2. + L-ornithene -> citrulline
3. + L-aspartate -> arginosuccinate
4. -> L-Fumarate + L-Arginine
5. L-Arginine + H2O -> Urea + L-ornithene
enzyme: CO2 + NH3 -> carbamoyl phosphate
carbamoyl phosphate synthase
enzyme: carbamoyl phosphate + L-ornithene -> citrulline
enzyme: citrulline + L-aspartate -> arginosuccinate
enzyme: arginosuccinate -> L-Fumarate + L-Arginine
enzyme: L-Arginine + H2O -> Urea + L-ornithene
creatinine is generated from...
phosphocreatine -> creatine -> creatinine
storage compound for energy in muscle
how many molecules of nitrogen does each creatinine molecule have?
enzyme: phosphocreatine -> creatine
Uric acid is generated from...
nucleic acid break down
- uric acid = nitrogenous metabolite of purines
high concentrations of uric acid causes...
gout (type of arthritis)
gout typically occurs in the ___. It is caused by...
urate crystal deposition in joint fluids -> inflammation -> joint becomes swollen/tender/painful
enzyme: xanthine -> uric acid
what is used to treat gout? why?
xathine oxidase inhibitors;
xathine oxidase is the enzyme that produces uric acid
some human studies suggest that a 60% GFR may be associated with...
increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease
___ and ___ are not toxic. The toxicity of low GFR is due to...
the small molecules that builds up in blood
endocrine functions of the kidney
3. vitamine D metabolism