PSL301: Respiratory 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSL301: Respiratory 6 Deck (56)
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1

what is considered high altitude?

> 1500 m

2

main problem at high altitudes?

hypoxia

3

What is the partial pressure of O2 in dry air?

253 x 0.21 = 53 mmHg

4

How does the peripheral chemoreflex respond to hypoxia?

- Will increase ventilation rate faster
- more dramatic increase
- begin responding at lower pCO2 levels

5

What happens to the hemoglobin saturation curve when hyperventilating?

- CO2 decreases
- H+ decreases
- pH increases (basic)
- more O saturation at tissues (does not release)

6

long term consequences of hypoxia

- release of erythropoietin
- synthesis of 2,3-DPG in RBC

7

What effect does 2,3-DPG have on the hemoglobin saturation curve?

right shift
- Hb has less affinity for O2

8

2,3-DPG is an intermediate of the ___ pathway

glycolysis

9

When does 2,3-DPG degrate?

When blood is stored

10

What conditions are related to high altitude? Which are very serious?

1. mountain sickness
2. high altitude pulmonary edema **
3. high altitude cerebral edema **

11

mountain sickness symptoms

- headache
- irritability
- insomnia
- breathlessness
- nausea
- vomitting

12

symptoms of mountain sickness is caused by...

cerebral autoregulation of blood flow

13

symptoms of high altitude pulmonary edema

- swelling of lungs
- shortness of breath
- cough pink frothy fluid

14

high altitude pulmonary edema

hypertension in the lungs

15

high altitude cerebral edema

swelling of the brain

16

high altitude cerebral edema symptoms

- ataxia
- disorientation
- coma & death (due to capillary leakage)
- brain swelling
- herniation of brain through the tentorium

17

herniation of brain through the tentorium

brain is pushed out through a hole towards the cerebellum if swelling is severe

18

ataxia

cannot control muscles

19

what happens during pulmonary edema?

Normally, lungs vasoconstrict blood vessels around aveoli that have low pO2 and pCO2 to increase efficiency. At high altitudes, all alveoli have low pO2 and pCO2 so all blood vessels become constricted.
- increased blood pressure
- pushes fluid out of vessels
- fluid surrounds alveoli, making it harder for gas exchange

20

prevention of hypoxia

acetazolamide

21

what does acetazolamide do?

- stops CA enzyme
- diuretic: reduce fluid in body
- forces the kidneys to excrete bicarb: want less alkaline conditions

22

treatment for hypoxia

- go to lower altitude
- give O2

23

treatment for cerebral edema

glucocorticoids
- anti-inflammatory

24

treatment for pulmonary edema

Nifedipine: lower pulmonary artery pressure by blocking L-type Ca++ channels

25

what happens to oxygen levels during exercise?

increases (log graph), then plateaus high for duration of exercise

26

What happens to oxygen levels at the end of exercise?

Rapid decrease (hyperbola)

27

what is used to deliver more oxygen to muscles during exercise?

respiratory & cardiovascular systems

28

What is the limiting factor during exercise?

cardiovascular system

29

What components of the respiratory system is affected during exercise?

- TV
- breathing frequency
- ventilation

30

What components of the cardiovascular system is affected during exercise?

- SV
- HR
- CO