Flashcards in Quiz 3 Study Guide: Coronary Artery Disease Deck (23)
What is Hypertension?
Increased Blood Pressure
What is Essential (Primary) Hypertension?
No obvious cause.
50 million in US
90-95% of all hypertensives
What are causes of Essential Hypertension?
Narrowing of the arteries and arterioles (esp. Kidney)
Increased sodium retention & intravascular volume
High Dietary Sodium
What is Secondary Hypertension?
Secondary to separate underlying condition (CHF)
5-10% of hypertensives
Causes of Secondary Hypertension?
Drugs (cocaine and amphetamines)
What are hypertensive heart changes?
Chronic Heart Hypertrophy (Heart Failure)
What is Hyperlipidemia?
A risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases.
0.2% = Familial (Genetic and environmental)
What are types of Primary hyperlipidemia?
13% of US = >240mg/dL
50% of US = >200mg/dL
What are causes of Secondary hyperlipidemia?
Heavy alcohol use.
What are the 4 main Lipoprotein classes and how do they affect atherosclerosis?
VLDL, IDL, LDL = Atherogenic (transport apoB to periphery)
HDL = Anti-Atherogenic (reverse cholesterol transport)
What is atherosclerosis?
Hardening of the arteries
Leading cause of Heart Disease (80%)
What is and atheroma?
Lipid deposit or plaque in arteries.
(Most common cause of atherosclerosis)
Most common sites of atherosclerosis...
Carotids/Circle of Willis
What is Stenosis?
Clinically Impeded Flow
(75% = Blockage)
Slow can cause stable angina.
What is abrupt stenosis?
Occlusion or impeded flow from a thrombus or emboli.
-Leads to infarct and or Death
What are the causes of a stroke?
Cerebral Infarct (Most Common)
What are atherosclerotic risk factors?
Age ( 45 M; 55 F)
??? Some association with Periodontal Disease???
What are the causes of Ischemic Heart Disease?
Coronary Artery Stenosis
Causes 70% of US heart disease-deaths and 30% total.
What is Angina Pectoris?
Paroxysmal attacks of chest pain.
(Substernal or Precordial)
-sign of myocardial ischemia
What are the 3 levels of Angina?
What classifies stable angina?
Pressure like pain (2-5 minutes) due to exertion.
- relieved by rest or vasodilators (nitroglycerine)
-ST segment depression
*usually caused by fixed coronary stenosis.
What is classifies Variant angina?
Occurs at rest
ST segment elevation or depression