Quiz 3 Study Guide: Coronary Artery Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Study Guide: Coronary Artery Disease Deck (23):
1

What is Hypertension?

Increased Blood Pressure
(>180/110)

2

What is Essential (Primary) Hypertension?

No obvious cause.
50 million in US
90-95% of all hypertensives

3

What are causes of Essential Hypertension?

Narrowing of the arteries and arterioles (esp. Kidney)
Increased sodium retention & intravascular volume
High Dietary Sodium

4

What is Secondary Hypertension?

Secondary to separate underlying condition (CHF)
Uncommon
5-10% of hypertensives

5

Causes of Secondary Hypertension?

Endocrine disorders
Drugs (cocaine and amphetamines)
Pregnancy
Renal Failure
Sleep apnea
Pain/stress (Temporary)

6

What are hypertensive heart changes?

Increased Atherosclerosis
MI's
Stroke
Aneurysms
Chronic Heart Hypertrophy (Heart Failure)

7

What is Hyperlipidemia?

A risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases.
0.2% = Familial (Genetic and environmental)

8

What are types of Primary hyperlipidemia?

Hypercholesterolemia
13% of US = >240mg/dL
50% of US = >200mg/dL

9

What are causes of Secondary hyperlipidemia?

Diabetes (T2)
Sedentary
poor diet
Obesity
Heavy alcohol use.

10

What are the 4 main Lipoprotein classes and how do they affect atherosclerosis?

VLDL, IDL, LDL = Atherogenic (transport apoB to periphery)
HDL = Anti-Atherogenic (reverse cholesterol transport)

11

What is atherosclerosis?

Hardening of the arteries
Leading cause of Heart Disease (80%)

12

What is and atheroma?

Lipid deposit or plaque in arteries.
(Most common cause of atherosclerosis)

13

Most common sites of atherosclerosis...

Aorta
Coronary Arteries
Legs
Carotids/Circle of Willis
Kidney
Pulmonary

14

What is Stenosis?

Clinically Impeded Flow
(75% = Blockage)

Slow can cause stable angina.

15

What is abrupt stenosis?

Occlusion or impeded flow from a thrombus or emboli.

-Dangerous
-Leads to infarct and or Death

16

What are the causes of a stroke?

Cerebral Infarct (Most Common)
Hemorrhaging

17

What are atherosclerotic risk factors?

Age ( 45 M; 55 F)
Smoking
Diabetes
Hypertension
Dyslipidemia
Family History
Lifestyles (sedentary/diet)
??? Some association with Periodontal Disease???

18

What are the causes of Ischemic Heart Disease?

Coronary Artery Stenosis
Atheroma Types

Causes 70% of US heart disease-deaths and 30% total.

19

What is Angina Pectoris?

Paroxysmal attacks of chest pain.
(Substernal or Precordial)

-sign of myocardial ischemia

20

What are the 3 levels of Angina?

Stable
Variant (Prinzmetal's)
Unstable

21

What classifies stable angina?

Pressure like pain (2-5 minutes) due to exertion.
- relieved by rest or vasodilators (nitroglycerine)
-ST segment depression

*usually caused by fixed coronary stenosis.

22

What is classifies Variant angina?

Occurs at rest
Brief
ST segment elevation or depression

23

What is classifies unstable angina?

Prolonged pain at rest.
ST sement Depression

*usually due to acute plaque change -Dangerous