Quiz 5 Study Guide: Bone and Joint Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 5 Study Guide: Bone and Joint Deck (36):
1

99% of the body's calcium is stored where?

In the Bones

2

Where is the primary site of Hematopoiesis?

Bones

3

Bones are constantly...

Remodeling

4

Medullary bone resits....

Compression forces

5

Cortical bone is...

Thick and resists bending forces

6

What is a tough fibrous membrane that covers bone surfaces except at joints and is well innervated?

Periosteum

7

What is characteristic of Osteogenesis imperfect?

Deficient type 1 collagen (too little bone)
Generalized Osteopenia
-Multiple fractures and bone deformities
- Malformed teeth (dentin deficiency)
Blue Sclera

8

What is characteristic in an achondroplastic dwarf?

Reduced function of growth plates

9

What is characteristic of Osteopetrosis?

Defective osteoclasts
Bone is brittle and too dense

10

What are examples of acquired diseases of bone?

Vitamin Deficiencies (Scurvy or Rickets)
Endocrine Factors (Hyperparathyroidism)

11

What are specific types of acquired diseases of bone?

Osteoporosis -common in elderly and post menopause
Osteomalacia- Vit. D deficiency (Lack normal mineralization usually in the kidney)
Hyperparathyroidism - High Ca++ caused by parathyroid adenoma.

12

What causes Osteoporosis?

Genetic- age, low estrogen, fair hair and skin, tall and thin
Behavior- Inactivity, smoking/alcohol, malnutrition, medication (Chronic Corticosteroids)

13

What is the burden of osteoporosis?

10 million in US (mostly women)
1/3 women > 50 Years old have at least on osteoporotic fracture.

14

What are disorders of Bone instability?

Kyphosis - forward curvature of spine
Scoliosis - Lateral curvature of spine

15

What are the different type of fractures?

Complete
Closed (Underlying tissue intact)
Comminuted-Bone splintered
Displaced

16

What is osteomyelitis?

Inflammation of bone/marrow

17

What are characteristics of Osteomyelitis?

Blood born or direct
Trauma from compound fractures
Pyogenic Infections (Staph or Salmonella)
Granulomatous (TB or Fungal)
-Pott disease when TB and in spine
Diabetes due to poor circulation in the extremities
-Chronic can form drainage site and become osteosarcoma

18

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a....

Degenerative Joint disease

19

What is characteristic of Osteoarthritis?

-Loss of articular cartilage with secondary changes in bone
- Presents in some degree in most persons >65 years old
*symptoms worsen with use
-Due to wear and tear
-No inflammatory changes, but degenerative

20

What is characteristic of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

-More systemic and Bilateral
- Autoimmune = 1% prevalence
-Most common in caucasians. Not in asians
-Onset age = 25-50 yrs. 75% female/ can have juvenile RA
- Joint swelling, pain and tenderness
-extreme distortion of joints and bone
-may have fever, weakness, malaise

21

What are other areas affected by Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Ulcers
Pulmonary nodules and fibrosis
Carditis and pericarditis
Vasculitis

22

What are other inflammatory Arthritites?

Psoriatic Arthritis
Other Autoimmune diseases (Lupus)
Postinfections (e.g. Rheumatic Fever)
Infectious (Staph or Strep)
Gout (Crystalized uric acid)
Lyme Disease (when not treated)

23

What is the primary cause of Gout?

Reduced renal excretion of purine (uric acid is break down product)

24

What is the primary treatment for Gout?

Allopurinol - Decreases the synthesis of purines.

25

What are the symptoms of Gout?

Hot, swollen, pain in joints
Progressive Joint Destruction

*gouty top (crystalized aggregates of uric acid)

26

What is pseudo-gout?

Crystal deposits of calcium pyrophosphate

27

What are ganglion cysts?

a cyst resulting from connective tissue around joints
*often painful

28

Where are malignant carcinomas spread to the bone tumors most likely to come from?

The lungs
Prostate
Breast
Thyroid
Kidneys

29

Bone tumors most likely to be seen in maxilla and mandible are?

Osteomas-immature bone
Giant Cell Tumor (benign, aggressive)
Fibrous Dysplasia (not malignant)
Osteosarcoma (adolescents or elderly)
Ewing Sarcoma (10-20 year olds; *2nd most frequent after
Osteosarcoma)

30

What is an osteosarcoma?

Most frequent form of bone malignancy

*adolescent or geriatric patients most likely
*usually in long bones or sometime mandible

31

What is an osteochondroma?

Benign tumors of the cartilage: do not see in mandible or maxilla

32

What is a chondrosarcoma?

Malignancy of Cartilage

33

What is Fibrous Dysplasia?

A Benign Medullary bone that does not properly mature

*often in jaws

34

What is Ewing Sarcoma?

2nd most frequent Sarcoma after osteosarcoma.

*10-20 year olds

35

Where can you see a Giant Cell Tumor?

Mandibular Bone

36

What are the different types of Soft tissue tumors?

Lipomas (Common/usually no tx)
Liposarcoma (Malignant)
Fibrous Tumors
Fibrosarcoma (Malignant neoplasm of fibroblasts)
Skeletal Muscle tumor (Rhabdomyomasarcoma)
Smooth Muscle tumor (Benign leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas)