Quiz 3 Study Guide: Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Study Guide: Heart Disease Deck (21):
1

What are 6 symptoms of a Myocardial Infarct?

Retrosternal Chest Pain
Dyspnea (short of breath)
Diaphoresis (Sweating)
Nausea
Palpitations
Anxiety

2

What is the Diagnostic Criteria for a Myocardial Infarct?
(Need at least 2)

Ischemic type chest pain > 20 minutes
Acute EKG changes
Rising then falling serum cardiac biomarkers (troponin)
OR
Pathological documentation of an infarct at autopsy.

3

What is a Transmural Infarct?

Full thickness (endocardium to epicardium)
More severe

- Usually involving LV anterior and posterior free wall or septum.
-Correlates with STEMI (ST segment Elevation)

4

What Causes a subendocardial infarct?

Due to hypotension, global ischemia

5

What is a subendocardial infarct?

Multifocal or defuse areas of necrosis confined to the inner 1/3-1/2 of the LV wall.
Less severe

Correlates with NSTEMI (Non-ST segment elevation)

6

What are MI complications?

None 10-20%
Arrhythmias 75-95%
Congestive Heart Failure, Pulmonary Edema (60%)
Cardiogenic Shock 10-15%
Mural Thrombosis 40%
Rupture (ventricle or papillary muscle) 4-8%
Extension of infarct

7

What are symptoms of Valvular heart disease?

Stenosis - Valve won't open
Regurgitation - Can't close completely

(Aortic)

8

Types of Valvular Heart Disease...

Rheumatic Fever
Infective Endocarditis (Strep or Staph)
Pre-injured valve

9

Endocarditis complications...

Very destructive
Can cause thrombi
Destroy and perforate valvular tissue
Systemically dangerous

10

What are complications of artificial valves?

Can cause thrombi
Increased risk of Infective endocarditis
Wears out valves and leaks (murmurs)

11

What are arrhythmias?

Electrical problems in the heart
-Premature beats (usually not dangerous)
Tachyarrhythmias (less common but more serious -Fibrillations)

12

What are symptoms of arrhythmias?

Palpitations
syncope (fainting)
sudden cardiac death (atherosclerosis involvement)

13

Causes of conduction disturbances.

Ischemic Heart disease - Scarring
degenerative changes
antiarrythmic drugs
hyperkalemia
MI
Trauma
Congenital

14

What is Bradycardia?

< 60 BPM

15

What is Tachycardia?

> 100 BPM

16

What is a 1st degree heart block?

Slowed impulse propagation.

17

What is a 2nd degree heart block?

Impulse propagation to ventricles sometimes fails.
Irregular ventricular contraction
Causes Syncope
Pacemaker can be needed.

18

What is 3rd degree heart block?

Complete AV block
No conduction from AV
Only latent pacemakers of ventricles


- More p waves that QRS complexes
-Syncope and risk of sudden death.

19

What are ectopic beats?

-Originates at sites other than sinus node.

-Increased rate of depolarization at any site to a rate faster than the sinus node results in a premature depolarization.

20

Where can Ectopic beats originate from?

The Atria
Specialized conduction system ( av node or bundle of HIS)
The Ventricles

21

Examples/causes of Ectopic Beats...

Atrial premature depolarization
VPB's
Tacky-arrythmias
A Fib
Cong. Heart Failure (Valve disease/hypertension)