Flashcards in Quiz 3 Study Guide: Heart Disease Deck (21)
What are 6 symptoms of a Myocardial Infarct?
Retrosternal Chest Pain
Dyspnea (short of breath)
What is the Diagnostic Criteria for a Myocardial Infarct?
(Need at least 2)
Ischemic type chest pain > 20 minutes
Acute EKG changes
Rising then falling serum cardiac biomarkers (troponin)
Pathological documentation of an infarct at autopsy.
What is a Transmural Infarct?
Full thickness (endocardium to epicardium)
- Usually involving LV anterior and posterior free wall or septum.
-Correlates with STEMI (ST segment Elevation)
What Causes a subendocardial infarct?
Due to hypotension, global ischemia
What is a subendocardial infarct?
Multifocal or defuse areas of necrosis confined to the inner 1/3-1/2 of the LV wall.
Correlates with NSTEMI (Non-ST segment elevation)
What are MI complications?
Congestive Heart Failure, Pulmonary Edema (60%)
Cardiogenic Shock 10-15%
Mural Thrombosis 40%
Rupture (ventricle or papillary muscle) 4-8%
Extension of infarct
What are symptoms of Valvular heart disease?
Stenosis - Valve won't open
Regurgitation - Can't close completely
Types of Valvular Heart Disease...
Infective Endocarditis (Strep or Staph)
Can cause thrombi
Destroy and perforate valvular tissue
What are complications of artificial valves?
Can cause thrombi
Increased risk of Infective endocarditis
Wears out valves and leaks (murmurs)
What are arrhythmias?
Electrical problems in the heart
-Premature beats (usually not dangerous)
Tachyarrhythmias (less common but more serious -Fibrillations)
What are symptoms of arrhythmias?
sudden cardiac death (atherosclerosis involvement)
Causes of conduction disturbances.
Ischemic Heart disease - Scarring
What is Bradycardia?
< 60 BPM
What is Tachycardia?
> 100 BPM
What is a 1st degree heart block?
Slowed impulse propagation.
What is a 2nd degree heart block?
Impulse propagation to ventricles sometimes fails.
Irregular ventricular contraction
Pacemaker can be needed.
What is 3rd degree heart block?
Complete AV block
No conduction from AV
Only latent pacemakers of ventricles
- More p waves that QRS complexes
-Syncope and risk of sudden death.
What are ectopic beats?
-Originates at sites other than sinus node.
-Increased rate of depolarization at any site to a rate faster than the sinus node results in a premature depolarization.
Where can Ectopic beats originate from?
Specialized conduction system ( av node or bundle of HIS)