Flashcards in Quiz 5 Study Guide: Reproductive and Breast Deck (58)
What are the common symptoms of Breast Disease?
When do you start screenings with Mammography?
40 Years of age
*younger women have more dense breast tissue making discovering a mass more difficult.
What Does a Mammography Show?
Changes over time
Can help guide biopsy needle
What is characteristic of Acute Mastitis?
Breast accesses and necrosis
Usually associated with breast feeding
Can be from plugged ducts
Can be infectious or non-infectious
What is characteristic of Fat necrosis?
*seat belt during an accident
What is characteristic of Breast Cysts?
Higher breast cancer risk in aggressive proliferative type
Occurs in 20-40 year olds
usually not in post menopause women
Can look like cancer on a Mammogram
What are the 3 Fibrocystic changes seen with Breast Cysts?
Palpable changes making detection of cancer difficult
What are characteristics of a benign neoplasm of the breast?
Fibroadenomas (most common)
Mostly Connective Tissue
Don't typically remove unless uncomfortable
What are characteristics of Breast Carcinomas?
Rarely occurs <25 years of age
Mostly in more affluent societies
30% incidence by 70 Years old (1 in 9 die)
Inherited = 5-10% (BRCA 1 & 2)
Family tendency = 20-30% risk
Sporadic = 70-80%
250,000 new cancers /year in US
What are the symptoms of Breast Carcinomas?
-Masses (Assessed by, palpitation, mammography, ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy)
What are the factors relating to Prognosis of Breast Carcinomas?
-Based on size, axillary node status, and far metastasis
-5 year survival @ stage 0 = 92%; stage IV = 13%
-Tumor expressing estrogen/progesterone often responds to hormonal treatment
Characteristics of types of breast cancer...
-Invasive Carcinomas = 75-85%
-Generally all are adenocarcinomas from epi cells in terminal ducts.
-Most are ductal and incidence increases with age
-Lumpectomies can treat smaller masses
What is characteristic of Benign Epithelial Lesions of the Breast?
e.g. 60% of women have microscopic cysts associated with epithelial tissues
What is usual cause for Cervical Cancers?
HPV - associated squamous cell neoplasm
What is used to detect Cervical Cancers early?
What are the risk factors of Cervical Cancers?
Early age of first sexual contact
Oral Contraception for >5 Years
What are the causes of endometrial polyps?
*Progresses to Cancer in 2%
What are characteristics of Leiomyoma of the endometrium?
Benign Smooth Muscle Neoplasm
Bleeding and Painful
May Cause Infertility
What are the risks of endometrial Cancer (adenocarcinoma)?
What are the Treatments for endometrial cancer?
Hysterectomy- Treatment of choice
What is the cause of endometritis? (Infections)
Intrauterine Devices (IUD's)
What can endometrial hyperplasia progress to?
What is characteristic of endometrial hyperplasia?
Exaggerated responses due to excessive estrogen
-Excessive ovarian activity
What is the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia?
What are the two types of Ovarian Masses?
Non-neoplastic cysts (e.g. follicular)
Neoplastic (e.g. endometroioid)
What are characteristics of Neoplastic Ovarian Masses?
Most are sporadic (90%)
Contraceptives can decrease risk
10% are Hereditary (BRCA 1&2)
What is treatment for Neoplastic Ovarian Masses?
Total Hysterectomy + removal of surrounding tissue + chemotherapy
What are the symptoms of Ovarian Masses?
Is there an effective screening for ovarian cancer?