Quiz 5 Study Guide: Reproductive and Breast Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 5 Study Guide: Reproductive and Breast Deck (58)
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1

What are the common symptoms of Breast Disease?

Pain
Palpable Masses
Nipple Discharge

2

When do you start screenings with Mammography?

40 Years of age
*younger women have more dense breast tissue making discovering a mass more difficult.

3

What Does a Mammography Show?

Density
Architectural Distortions
Calcification
Changes over time
Can help guide biopsy needle
85-90% predictive

4

What is characteristic of Acute Mastitis?

Breast accesses and necrosis
Usually associated with breast feeding
Can be from plugged ducts
Can be infectious or non-infectious

5

What is characteristic of Fat necrosis?

Trauma

*seat belt during an accident

6

What is characteristic of Breast Cysts?

Fibrocystic changes
Higher breast cancer risk in aggressive proliferative type
Occurs in 20-40 year olds
usually not in post menopause women
Can calcify
Can look like cancer on a Mammogram

7

What are the 3 Fibrocystic changes seen with Breast Cysts?

Fibrosis
Cysts
Palpable changes making detection of cancer difficult

8

What are characteristics of a benign neoplasm of the breast?

Fibroadenomas (most common)
Mostly Connective Tissue
Well Circumscribed
Don't typically remove unless uncomfortable

9

What are characteristics of Breast Carcinomas?

Rarely occurs <25 years of age
Mostly in more affluent societies
30% incidence by 70 Years old (1 in 9 die)
Inherited = 5-10% (BRCA 1 & 2)
Family tendency = 20-30% risk
Sporadic = 70-80%
250,000 new cancers /year in US

10

What are the symptoms of Breast Carcinomas?

-Pain
-Masses (Assessed by, palpitation, mammography, ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy)

11

What are the factors relating to Prognosis of Breast Carcinomas?

-Based on size, axillary node status, and far metastasis
-5 year survival @ stage 0 = 92%; stage IV = 13%
-Tumor expressing estrogen/progesterone often responds to hormonal treatment

12

Characteristics of types of breast cancer...

-Invasive Carcinomas = 75-85%
-Generally all are adenocarcinomas from epi cells in terminal ducts.
-Most are ductal and incidence increases with age
-Lumpectomies can treat smaller masses

13

What is characteristic of Benign Epithelial Lesions of the Breast?

Fibrocytic changes

e.g. 60% of women have microscopic cysts associated with epithelial tissues

14

What is usual cause for Cervical Cancers?

HPV - associated squamous cell neoplasm

15

What is used to detect Cervical Cancers early?

Pap Smear

16

What are the risk factors of Cervical Cancers?

Multiple Partners
Immunosuppression
Early age of first sexual contact
Oral Contraception for >5 Years
Nicotine Use

17

What are the causes of endometrial polyps?

Hypertension
Obesity
Late Menopause

*Progresses to Cancer in 2%

18

What are characteristics of Leiomyoma of the endometrium?

Benign Smooth Muscle Neoplasm
Estrogen-Dependent
Bleeding and Painful
May Cause Infertility

19

What are the risks of endometrial Cancer (adenocarcinoma)?

Obesity
Diabetes
Hypertension

20

What are the Treatments for endometrial cancer?

Hysterectomy- Treatment of choice
Radiation/Chemotherapy adjunctive

21

What is the cause of endometritis? (Infections)

Intrauterine Devices (IUD's)

22

What can endometrial hyperplasia progress to?

Cancer

23

What is characteristic of endometrial hyperplasia?

Exaggerated responses due to excessive estrogen
-Excessive ovarian activity

24

What is the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia?

Progesterone
Hysterectomy

25

What are the two types of Ovarian Masses?

Non-neoplastic cysts (e.g. follicular)
Neoplastic (e.g. endometroioid)

26

What are characteristics of Neoplastic Ovarian Masses?

Most are sporadic (90%)
Contraceptives can decrease risk
10% are Hereditary (BRCA 1&2)

27

What is treatment for Neoplastic Ovarian Masses?

Total Hysterectomy + removal of surrounding tissue + chemotherapy

28

What are the symptoms of Ovarian Masses?

Pelvic Pain
Pelvic Mass
Abdominal Bleeding

29

Is there an effective screening for ovarian cancer?

NO

30

Characteristics of Estrogens and Progestins...

-Natural estrogens are Steroid hormones (Not Synthetic)
-They cross cell membranes and activate estrogen receptors inside cell (modulate gene expression)