Flashcards in Quiz 3 Study Guide: Intro to Pathology Deck (32)
What are the top 3 Major causes of Death?
Heart Disease (28%)
What are the middle 3 Major causes of Death?
Diabetes (3%) but increasing
What are the last 3 Major causes of Death?
Renal Diseases (1.7%)
What is Hypertrophy?
What is Hyperplasia?
What is Atrophy?
Cell Shrinkage or Loss?
What is Cachexia?
Fatty atrophy that can result in death (about 68% of normal body weight)
What is Metaplasia?
Replacement of one cell type by another.
What is Dysplasia?
Disordered Hyperplasia without maturation. (risk of tumor)
What cells are most prone to injury?
-High metabolic activity (Cardiac myocytes, hepatocytes)
-Rapidly Proliferating (Intestinal Epithelium, Testicular germ cells)
What are the degrees of Cell Injury?
Reversible - Damage not enough to kill cell
- Toxic liver injury, Severe exercise
Irreversible - Cell death
- via holes in membrane, mitochondrial loss.
What are the 2 types of Irreversible Cell Death?
Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death)
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death.
- No inflammation
- One cell at a time
What is Necrosis?
Uncoordinated cell death
- happens in cell clusters
-Incites Acute inflammation
-Cells are often swollen (loss of ion pumps)
What are the different types of Necrosis?
Coagulative - Heart Infarct
Liquefactive - Brain
Caseous - Tuberculosis
Gangrenous - Frostbite
Examples of Abnormal Storage Products...
Example of Fatty Abnormal Storage...
Alcohol induced Fatty-Liver
Example of Glycogen Abnormal Storage...
Liver in Diabetes
Example of lipid Abnormal Storage...
Vessels in atherosclerosis
Fabry's or Gaucher's
Example of Brown Abnormal Storage...
Lipofuscin - degraded lipid in lysosomes
Hemosiderin - Iron Containing pigment (bleeding into tissues)
Example of Protein Abnormal Storage...
Intracellular - Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Russell Bodie
Extracellular - Amyloid Plaques (Congo Red Stain = Apple green color in polarized light)
Examples of Miscellaneous abnormal storage...
Anthracosis (Silica, asbestos)
Example of Calcification Abnormal Storage...
Dystrophic - into damaged tissue
Metastatic - Into normal tissue (renal failure, hypoparathyroidism, malignancy)
What is edema?
Too much extravascular fluid in tissues.
What is Effusion?
Too much fluid in a body cavity.
What is Ascites?
Excess fluid in peritoneal space.
What is hypotension?
- Hypovolemic (Blood)
- Cardiogenic (Heart)
-Sepsis (generalized infection)
What is Congestive Heart Failure?
Insufficient cardiac output from...
systolic dysfunction (Weak pumping)
Diastolic dysfunction (insufficient expansion)
What is the bodies compensation for CHF?
Increased Stroke Volume (Frank-Starling)
Increased catecholamine activity
Redistribution of blood flow
What are causes of Left-Sided Heart disease?
Ischemic heart disease (not enough blood supply)
What are symptoms of Left-Sided Heart disease?
Pulmonary edema (Breathing Problems)
Orthopnea (Dyspnea lying down)
Reduced blood to organs (Kidneys)