Flashcards in 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Eye and Ear Deck (25)
What is a Sty?
Skin infection like a pimple
What are cancers of the eye?
Basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma on lids destroy lashes.
High intraocular pressure in anterior chamber
-Increased pressure within eye due to increased production or decreased outflow of aqueous humor.
Can damage optic nerve and cause blindness.
*#2 cause of blindness after cataracts
How often is aqueous humor replaced?
Every 2 hours (supplies nutrients and removes waste)
What is closed angle glaucoma?
Iris fused to Cornea
- Often painful
- Fast developing
- Requires immediate attention to avoid blindness
What is Open angle glaucoma?
Wide space between Iris and Cornea
- age, african american, Diabetes, Hypertension
- By far the most common form of Glaucoma (90%)
- Reduction in drainage
- Slow Development
What measures intraocular pressure?
What drugs treat Glaucoma?
* DO NOT use anticholinergics and stimulants (amphetamines)
How does pilocarpine work?
Cholinomimetic that contracts the ciliary muscle and increases outflow of aqueous humor.
How does Timolol work?
Beta blocker that decreases aqueous humor secretion
How does Latanoprost work?
Prostaglandin that increases outflow of aqueous humor
What are cataracts?
Opaque lens due to age, UV exposure, diabetes, or steroid use
What are characteristics of Diabetic Retinopathy?
-Microaneurisms on retina
- Cotton wool spots from ischemia
Hypertensive Retinopathy looks like...
What are characteristics of Age-related Macular degeneration?
-Associated with gene polymorphisms, smoking, CV disease
- Loss of central vision (widens laterally)
-Smoking is a risk factor
-antioxidants can help (minimal benefit)
What is retinal detachment?
Usually retinal tear resulting from trauma
What is the most common tumor in children?
What is Meniere Disease?
Excess of endolymphatic fluid in inner ear
*vertigo, hearing loss, nausea, migrants, tinnitus, swimming feeling
What are the risks for Meniere Disease?
Abnormal immune response
What drugs treat Meniere Disease?
What is the method of action of Meclizine?
Antivert- H1 Blocker, anticholinergic, CNS-Depressant, anti nausea and motion sickness, Xerostomia
What is the method of action of Promethazine?
H1 Blocker, anticholinergic, anti nausea and motion sickness, Xerostomia
What is the method of action of Hydrochlorothiazide?
Diuretic-regulate fluid volume and pressure in inner ear
What are the symptoms of Otitis Media?
Pain (can be mistaken for dental or sinus pain)
immobile bulging eardrum