3rd Midterm Study Guide: Eye and Ear Flashcards Preview

Human Disease and Therapeutics > 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Eye and Ear > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Eye and Ear Deck (25):
1

What is a Sty?

Skin infection like a pimple

2

What are cancers of the eye?

Basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma on lids destroy lashes.

3

Glaucoma

High intraocular pressure in anterior chamber
-Increased pressure within eye due to increased production or decreased outflow of aqueous humor.
Can damage optic nerve and cause blindness.

*#2 cause of blindness after cataracts

4

How often is aqueous humor replaced?

Every 2 hours (supplies nutrients and removes waste)

5

What is closed angle glaucoma?

Iris fused to Cornea
- Often painful
- Fast developing
- Requires immediate attention to avoid blindness

6

What is Open angle glaucoma?

Wide space between Iris and Cornea
- age, african american, Diabetes, Hypertension
- By far the most common form of Glaucoma (90%)
- Reduction in drainage
- Slow Development

7

What measures intraocular pressure?

Tonometry

8

What drugs treat Glaucoma?

Pilocarpine
Timolol
Lantanoprost

* DO NOT use anticholinergics and stimulants (amphetamines)

9

How does pilocarpine work?

Cholinomimetic that contracts the ciliary muscle and increases outflow of aqueous humor.

10

How does Timolol work?

Beta blocker that decreases aqueous humor secretion

11

How does Latanoprost work?

Prostaglandin that increases outflow of aqueous humor

12

What are cataracts?

Opaque lens due to age, UV exposure, diabetes, or steroid use

13

What are characteristics of Diabetic Retinopathy?

-Microaneurisms on retina
- Cotton wool spots from ischemia

14

Hypertensive Retinopathy looks like...

diabetic retinopathy

15

What are characteristics of Age-related Macular degeneration?

-Associated with gene polymorphisms, smoking, CV disease

- Loss of central vision (widens laterally)
-Smoking is a risk factor
-antioxidants can help (minimal benefit)

16

What is retinal detachment?

Usually retinal tear resulting from trauma

17

What is the most common tumor in children?

Retinoblastoma

18

What is Meniere Disease?

Excess of endolymphatic fluid in inner ear

*vertigo, hearing loss, nausea, migrants, tinnitus, swimming feeling

19

What are the risks for Meniere Disease?

Abnormal immune response
Allergies
Head trauma
Migraines

20

What drugs treat Meniere Disease?

Meclizine
Diazepam
Promethazine
Long-acting Steroids
Hydrochlorothiazide

21

What is the method of action of Meclizine?

Antivert- H1 Blocker, anticholinergic, CNS-Depressant, anti nausea and motion sickness, Xerostomia

22

What is the method of action of Promethazine?

H1 Blocker, anticholinergic, anti nausea and motion sickness, Xerostomia

23

What is the method of action of Hydrochlorothiazide?

Diuretic-regulate fluid volume and pressure in inner ear

24

What are the symptoms of Otitis Media?

Pain (can be mistaken for dental or sinus pain)
ear discharge
headache
hearing loss
tinnitus
vertigo
immobile bulging eardrum

25

What is used to treat Otitis Media?

Amoxicillin or Augmentin or cefaclor