Flashcards in Exam 2 Study Guide Thyroid Disorders Deck (64)
What are infrequent ectopic sites of the thyroid in the oral cavity?
Lingual Thyroid Tissue
Excessive activation of the thyroid leads to...
a hypermetabolic state causing protein catabolism and enhanced sympathetic NS activity.
Thyroid disease is most common in...
What is "thyroid storm"?
What disease is affiliated with Hyperthyroidism?
Grave's Disease (in 90% of cases)
What are causes of Grave's disease?
Autoimmune-antibodies function as agonists to thyroid-related receptors- causing excessive thyroid receptor activation.
What are the symptoms of Grave's disease?
Thyroid gland hyperplasia
What is Plummer's Disease?
A multi lobular goiter
5-10% of hyperthyroidism cases
What disease is affiliated with Hypothyroidism?
most common in females
Characteristics of a goiter...
-Most common thyroid lesion
-Rare with Hypothyroidism
-Not a cancer
-Diagnosed with fine needle aspiration (look for colloid)
What is the most common thyroid neoplasm?
Thyroid Carcinomas are typically...
Low risk and low metastasis
*Most common is Papillary carcinoma
What are mostly benign and found in 6% of women and 2% of males?
What drugs are used to treat Hyperthyroidism?
What is an example of a thiomide and how dies it work?
- inhibits the thyroid peroxidase reaction and blocks synthesis of the hormone.
How doe Iodides-Lugol solution work?
Inhibit hormon release
How do beta blockers (propranolol) treat hyperthyroidism?
Inhibit the conversion of T4 to T3
How does Radiation iodine treat hyperthyroidism?
Destroys thyroid parenchyma
How do you treat Hypothyroidism?
Synthroid or Levothroid
What is the function of the Parathyroid?
-Secrete PTH regulated by free calcium in blood.
- Low Ca++ = increased PTH
-PTH activates Osteoclasts and bone resorption to increase serum Ca++
-also increases tubular reabsorption of calcium
-Activates vitamin D
-Increases GI absorption
Hyperparathyroidism causes what?
*Primary and Secondary
What are the characteristics of Primary Hypercalcemia?
-Common Endocrine Disorder (adenoma)
-Elevated serum Ca++
What are symptoms of Primary Hypercalcemia?
What is the treatment for Primary Hypercalcemia
What is Secondary Hypercalcemia?
Intestinal malabsorption of Vitamin D or Calcium
What drugs are used to treat Osteoporosis?
Estrogens and Estrogen Modulators
How does Denosumab (Xgeva) work?
antibody to the osteoclastic-stimulating protein (RANK)
-This drug blocks osteoclast number and activity
How does Teraparatide (Forteo) work?
a recombinant form of parathormone segment which selectively activates osteoblasts and stimulates new bone formation.
How does estrogen (Modulators) work?
Prevent bone loss in early post-menopausal period
* should be used in combination with progestin to protect against venous thrombi