Exam 2 Study Guide Thyroid Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 Study Guide Thyroid Disorders Deck (64)
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1

What are infrequent ectopic sites of the thyroid in the oral cavity?

Intralingual
Lingual Thyroid Tissue

2

Excessive activation of the thyroid leads to...

a hypermetabolic state causing protein catabolism and enhanced sympathetic NS activity.

3

Thyroid disease is most common in...

Females

4

What is "thyroid storm"?

Fever
Tachycardia
Sweating
Shaking
Agitation
Unconsciousness

5

What disease is affiliated with Hyperthyroidism?

Grave's Disease (in 90% of cases)

6

What are causes of Grave's disease?

Autoimmune-antibodies function as agonists to thyroid-related receptors- causing excessive thyroid receptor activation.

7

What are the symptoms of Grave's disease?

Hyperthyroidism
Exophthalmos
Thyroid gland hyperplasia

8

What is Plummer's Disease?

A multi lobular goiter

5-10% of hyperthyroidism cases

9

What disease is affiliated with Hypothyroidism?

Hashimoto's Disease

most common in females

10

Characteristics of a goiter...

-Most common thyroid lesion
-Rare with Hypothyroidism
-Not a cancer
-Iodine Deficiency
-Diagnosed with fine needle aspiration (look for colloid)

11

What is the most common thyroid neoplasm?

Thyroid adenomas

*not malignant

12

Thyroid Carcinomas are typically...

Low risk and low metastasis

*Most common is Papillary carcinoma

13

What are mostly benign and found in 6% of women and 2% of males?

Thyroid Nodules

14

What drugs are used to treat Hyperthyroidism?

Thiomides
Iodides-Lugo Solution
Beta Blockers
Radiation Iodine

15

What is an example of a thiomide and how dies it work?

propylythiouracil (PTU)
- inhibits the thyroid peroxidase reaction and blocks synthesis of the hormone.

16

How doe Iodides-Lugol solution work?

Inhibit hormon release

17

How do beta blockers (propranolol) treat hyperthyroidism?

Inhibit the conversion of T4 to T3

18

How does Radiation iodine treat hyperthyroidism?

Destroys thyroid parenchyma

19

How do you treat Hypothyroidism?

Thyroid replacement

Synthroid or Levothroid

20

What is the function of the Parathyroid?

-Secrete PTH regulated by free calcium in blood.
- Low Ca++ = increased PTH
-PTH activates Osteoclasts and bone resorption to increase serum Ca++
-also increases tubular reabsorption of calcium
-Activates vitamin D
-Increases GI absorption

21

Hyperparathyroidism causes what?

Hypercalcemia

*Primary and Secondary

22

What are the characteristics of Primary Hypercalcemia?

-Common Endocrine Disorder (adenoma)
-cause Arrhythmias
-Elevated serum Ca++
-Hypophosphatemic

23

What are symptoms of Primary Hypercalcemia?

Osteoporosis (fractures)
Constipation
Weakness
Anorexia
Stones
Ulcers
depression
coma

24

What is the treatment for Primary Hypercalcemia

Surgery

25

What is Secondary Hypercalcemia?

Intestinal malabsorption of Vitamin D or Calcium

26

What drugs are used to treat Osteoporosis?

Denosumab (Xgeva)
Teraparatide (Forteo)
Estrogens and Estrogen Modulators
Bisphosphonates

27

How does Denosumab (Xgeva) work?

antibody to the osteoclastic-stimulating protein (RANK)
-This drug blocks osteoclast number and activity

28

How does Teraparatide (Forteo) work?

a recombinant form of parathormone segment which selectively activates osteoblasts and stimulates new bone formation.

29

How does estrogen (Modulators) work?

Prevent bone loss in early post-menopausal period

* should be used in combination with progestin to protect against venous thrombi

30

How do bisphosphonates work?

Suppress activity of osteoclasts and inhibit bone resorption

*BRONJ