Flashcards in 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Gastrointestinal Deck (28)
What is chemical esophagitis?
Irritants to squamous mucosa
What is infectious esophagitis?
usually immunosuppressed (often Herpes, Candida, or Cytomegalovirus)
(Herpes = small ulcers)
What are the characteristics of Cytomegalovirus?
-affects the entire GI tract
-Well circumscribed, superficial ulcers
-may be associated with irritable bowel disease
-most likely in glandular epithelium, endothelial cells
*elderly or immunocompromised
What is Reflux Esophagitis?
Relaxation of gastroesophageal sphincter combined with reflux of gastric acid
What are the symptoms of Reflux esophagitis?
Burning, excessive salivation, choking
What are the aggravating factors of Reflux esophagitis?
alcohol and tobacco use
What are treatments for Reflux esophagitis?
Proton Pump Inhibitors
*lose weight, stop smoking/drinking
What are complications of untreated Reflux esophagitis?
What is reactive (erosive) gastropathy induced by?
What is acute injury (gastritis)?
asymptomatic with possible significant blood loss
What is characteristic of acute peptic ulceration?
Nausea, Vomitting, NSAIDS, Stress
What is characteristic of chronic gastritis?
-H. Pylori gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease
What is characteristic of H. pylori gastritis?
duodenal and pyloric ulcers; may lead to cancer
What is characteristic of Peptic Ulcer disease?
-Caused by H. pylori or NSAIDS
-punched out ulcers- perforation and hemorrhage
-Can lead to gastric ulcer, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma
*can treat H. pylori w/ antibiotics
What is characteristic of gastric polyps?
-They are hyperplastic
-In response to gastric injury (around ulcers)
-May contain some dysplasia
What is characteristic of gastric adenocarcinoma
-intestinal type form glands
-diffuse type have signet cell morphology
What is characteristic of an Intestinal Obstruction?
Usually mechanical (80%) - hernia or postsurgical adhesions
Neoplasm and infarction (20%)
What is characteristic of Hirschsprung disease?
-congenital defect/lack ganglia cells
-can't pass meconium
-missing ganglion cells to stimulate smooth muscles
What are the 4 selected diarrheal diseases?
-Irritable Bowel Syndrome
-Infectious self-limiting colitis
What is characteristic of Celiac Sprue?
-Triggered by gluten, metabolite causes tissue damage
- Delayed eruptions
- Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers
What is characteristic of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?
-Relapsing pain, bloating, constipation/diarrhea
-Diet, abnormal motility and stress are factors
-No Gross Microscopic Abnormalities
What is characteristic of Infectious Self-limiting Colitis?
Caused by microorganisms such as salmonella, E.coli
What is characteristic of Pseudomembranous Colitis?
-Usually caused by C. Dificil (hard to kill)
-Spread person to person
-Often follows antibiotic therapy
-MOST Common nosocomial infection in older adults
-Toxin causes pseudomembranous formation, fluid secretions and ulceration.
-50% of neonates are carriers
What are the 2 Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?
What is characteristic of Crohn's Disease?
-Similar to Ulcerative Colitis
-It has skipped areas that are non-lesioned and has intermediate strictures.
-Fistulas and perianal disease
-Also affects upper GI, but mostly lower GI
-Can lead to cancer
What is characteristic of ulcerative colitis?
-More continuous, especially in the colon and no strictures.
What is characteristic of a colon polyp?
-Hyperplastic polyps = no malignancy
-Adenoma = may become malignant