3rd Midterm Study Guide: Gastrointestinal Flashcards Preview

Human Disease and Therapeutics > 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Gastrointestinal > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3rd Midterm Study Guide: Gastrointestinal Deck (28):
1

What is chemical esophagitis?

Irritants to squamous mucosa

2

What is infectious esophagitis?

usually immunosuppressed (often Herpes, Candida, or Cytomegalovirus)

(Herpes = small ulcers)

3

What are the characteristics of Cytomegalovirus?

-affects the entire GI tract
-Well circumscribed, superficial ulcers
-may be associated with irritable bowel disease
-most likely in glandular epithelium, endothelial cells

*elderly or immunocompromised

4

What is Reflux Esophagitis?

Relaxation of gastroesophageal sphincter combined with reflux of gastric acid

5

What are the symptoms of Reflux esophagitis?

Burning, excessive salivation, choking

6

What are the aggravating factors of Reflux esophagitis?

obesity
pregnancy
alcohol and tobacco use
caffeine
nicotine

7

What are treatments for Reflux esophagitis?

Antacids
H2 blockers
Proton Pump Inhibitors

*lose weight, stop smoking/drinking

8

What are complications of untreated Reflux esophagitis?

Ulceration
Constrictures
Barrett Esophagus

9

What is reactive (erosive) gastropathy induced by?

alcohol
NSAIDS
iron
stress
bile reflux

10

What is acute injury (gastritis)?

asymptomatic with possible significant blood loss

11

What is characteristic of acute peptic ulceration?

Nausea, Vomitting, NSAIDS, Stress

12

What is characteristic of chronic gastritis?

-H. Pylori gastritis
-autoimmune gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease

13

What is characteristic of H. pylori gastritis?

duodenal and pyloric ulcers; may lead to cancer

14

What is characteristic of Peptic Ulcer disease?

-Caused by H. pylori or NSAIDS
-increased acid
-punched out ulcers- perforation and hemorrhage
-Can lead to gastric ulcer, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma

*can treat H. pylori w/ antibiotics

15

What is characteristic of gastric polyps?

-They are hyperplastic
-In response to gastric injury (around ulcers)
-May contain some dysplasia

16

What is characteristic of gastric adenocarcinoma

-intestinal type form glands
-diffuse type have signet cell morphology

17

What is characteristic of an Intestinal Obstruction?

Usually mechanical (80%) - hernia or postsurgical adhesions

Neoplasm and infarction (20%)

Hirschsprung disease

18

What is characteristic of Hirschsprung disease?

-congenital defect/lack ganglia cells
-can't pass meconium
-missing ganglion cells to stimulate smooth muscles

19

What are the 4 selected diarrheal diseases?

-Cilac Sprue
-Irritable Bowel Syndrome
-Infectious self-limiting colitis
-Pseudomembranous colitis

20

What is characteristic of Celiac Sprue?

-Immune Mediated
-Triggered by gluten, metabolite causes tissue damage
-Blunts Villi
-Oral effects:
-Enamel Defects
- Delayed eruptions
- Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers

21

What is characteristic of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

-Relapsing pain, bloating, constipation/diarrhea
-Diet, abnormal motility and stress are factors
-No Gross Microscopic Abnormalities

22

What is characteristic of Infectious Self-limiting Colitis?

Caused by microorganisms such as salmonella, E.coli

23

What is characteristic of Pseudomembranous Colitis?

-Usually caused by C. Dificil (hard to kill)
-Spread person to person
-Often follows antibiotic therapy
-MOST Common nosocomial infection in older adults
-Toxin causes pseudomembranous formation, fluid secretions and ulceration.
-50% of neonates are carriers

24

What are the 2 Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

-Crohn's Disease
-Ulcerative Colitis

25

What is characteristic of Crohn's Disease?

-Similar to Ulcerative Colitis
-It has skipped areas that are non-lesioned and has intermediate strictures.
-Granulomas
-Fistulas and perianal disease
-Also affects upper GI, but mostly lower GI
-Can lead to cancer
-Transmural lesions

26

What is characteristic of ulcerative colitis?

-More continuous, especially in the colon and no strictures.
-More Superficial

27

What is characteristic of a colon polyp?

-Hyperplastic polyps = no malignancy
-Adenoma = may become malignant

28

What is characteristic of Invasive Colonic Adenocarcinoma?

-15% cancer death in U.S.
-Dietary Factor
- Low vegetable Soluble Fiber
- High fat/carbohydrate diet
-Depth of invasion and lymph node involvement are prognostic