Recognition and Care of Shock Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Recognition and Care of Shock Chapter 18 Deck (39):

What is perfusion?

The adequate supply of well-oxygenated blood and nutrients to all the vital organs.


What's another word for shock?



The development of shock can be rapid or slowly. True or false?



What happens in normal perfusion?

1. Oxygen & Carbon dioxide are exchanged.
2. Nutrients & waste products are exchanged.
3. Fluid & salt balances are maintained between blood & tissue.


Shock is a dynamic process that if allowed to go unrecognized can be life threatening.
Care for patients with shock should not be delayed.
The initial problem must be corrected, & shock must be managed.
True or false?



What are the 4 categories of shock?

1. Cardiogenic shock
2. Distributive shock
3. Hypovolemic shock
4. Obstructive shock


Define shock.

The failure of the body's circulatory system to provide an adequate supply of well-oxygenated blood and nutrients to all vital organs. Also known as hypoperfusion.


What is hypoperfusion?

A condition in which the organs & cells are not receiving an adequate supply of well-oxygenated blood & nutrients. Also known as shock,


What is hypotension?

Abnormally low blood pressure.


What is Hypovolemic shock?

A category of shock caused by an abnormally low fluid volume (blood or plasma) in the body.


What is Cardiogenic shock?

A category and type of shock where the heart is not functioning properly to maintain a proper blood pressure to circulate blood adequately. This category of shock is sometimes referred to as pump failure.


What is Distributive shock?

A category shock where the vessels have dilated and results in a much larger space than the available blood supply can fill.


What is Obstructive shock?

A category of shock where an obstruction disrupts the adequate flow of blood.


What is Hemorrhagic shock?

A type of Hypovolemic shock that occurs due to a significant loss of whole blood.


What is Neurogenic shock?

A type of Distributive shock, neurogenic shock is caused when the spinal cord is damaged and is unable to control tone of the blood vessels by way of the sympathetic nervous system.


What is Anaphylactic shock?

A form of Distributive shock, also known as allergy shock. Anaphylactic shock is caused when the body has a severe allergic reaction. Blood vessels dilate uncontrollably.


What is Respiratory shock?

A form of shock caused by the disruption of the transfer of oxygen into the cells or the ability of the cells to utilize oxygen.


What is Psychogenic shock?

A form of Distributive shock, Psychogenic shock often causes fainting and usually occurs when some factor (like fear), causes the nervous system to react and rapidly dilate the blood vessels.


W?hat is Septic shock?

A form of Distributive shock caused by a widespread infection in the blood.


What is Compensated shock?

The condition in which the body is using specific mechanisms such as increased breathing rate & increased pulse rate to compensate for a lack of adequate perfusion.


What is Decompensated shock?

The condition in which the body is no longer able to compensate for a lack of adequate perfusion.


What are the early signs & symptoms of shock?

Restlessness, altered mental status,
Increased heart rate,
Normal to slight low BP
Mildly increased breathing rate
Skin that is pale, cool, & moist,
Sluggish pupils, nausea & vomiting

All symptoms may not be present at once. Shock is progressive (becomes worse with time). Not in a particular order.


Behavioral change may be the 1st sign of developing shock. True or false?



What are the late signs & symptoms of shock?

Unresponsiveness, decreasing heart rate,
Very low BP, slow & shallow Respirations,
Pale, cool, & moist skin
Dilated, sluggish pupils


What can you do to delay the progression of shock?

1. Perform primary assessment & ensure the ABC's are properly supported.
2. Control external bleeding.
3. Administer oxygen per local protocol.
4. Keep the patient in a supine position.
5. Calm & reassure the patient, & maintain a normal body temperature.
6. Monitor & support the ABC's.
7. Do not give the patient anything by mouth even if they are thirsty.
8. Monitor vital signs every 5 minutes.


Shock is not reversible, but you may be able to delay onset or keep it from worsening. True or false?



Fainting is also known as _______, also called __________ shock.

Psychogenic shock


All of the following are signs of shock EXCEPT:

A. Increased pulse rate
B. Decreasing BP
C. Pink, warm, moist skin
D. Altered mental status

C. Pink, warm, moist skin


When the body suffers a significant loss of blood, which type of shock is most likely to occur?

A. Anaphylactic
B. Cardiogenic
C. Hemorrhagic
D. Septic

C. Hemorrhagic


Burns most often result in _______ shock.

A. Hypovolemic
B. Septic
C. Respiratory
D. Neurogenic

A. Hypovolemic


Psychogenic shock is commonly known as:

A. Hyperperfusion
B. Stress reaction shock
C. Decompensation
D. Fainting

D. Fainting


Which one of the following is NOT one of the primary causes of shock?

A. Dilated blood vessels
B. Restricted movement
C. Severe fluid loss
D. Low levels of oxygen in the blood

B. Restricted movement


You arrive at the scene of an unresponsive male patient who crashed his motorcycle into a tree at a high rate of speed. His Respirations are 8 & shallow, pulse is 44 & weak, & you are unable to obtain a BP. This patient is most likely experiencing _______ shock.
A. Psychogenic
B. Compensated
C. Decompensated
D. Respiratory

C Decompensated


Decompensated shock is very serious and can quickly become:

A. Irreversible
B. Hypoperfusion
C. Compensated
D. Anaphylaxis

A. Irreversible


You are caring for a patient who was thrown from a horse and landed on her head. She is complaining of severe pain to the posterior neck. The patient is at risk for _______ shock.
A. Psychogenic
B. Hemorrhagic
C. Compensated
D. Neurogenic

D. Neurogenic


You arrive at the scene of a small child who fell 15 feet. She is conscious and alert & complaining only of pain in her right arm, which has some deformity. Which one of the following best describes the appropriate care for this person?
A. Splint the arm & suggest that her parents take her to the hospital.
B. Assume she has internal injuries & treat for shock.
C. Provide oxygen and splint the arm.
D. Place her on a long backboard and transport.

B. Assume she has internal injuries & treat for shock.


Why does a patient's pulse rate increase as shock develops?

A. To force oxygenated blood out of the patient's body core.
B. To counteract the high BP
C. To maintain adequate perfusion
D. To create more blood to compensate for fluid loss.

C. To maintain adequate perfusion


Care for shock includes:

1. Supporting the ABC's
2. keeping the patient lying flat
3. controlling all external bleeding
4. administering oxygen if allowed
5. maintaining a normal body temperature 6. expediting transport


It is important to begin care for shock if the mechanism of injury suggests internal injury or bleeding. True or False?