Caring for Respiratory Emergencies Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

EMR - First on Scene - 9th Edition La Baudour - Bergeron > Caring for Respiratory Emergencies Chapter 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Caring for Respiratory Emergencies Chapter 14 Deck (54)
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0
Q
You are caring for a patient with difficulty breathing. She states that she has a history of asthma. You understand asthma to be a disease of:
A. Upper airway
B. Lower airway
C. Alveoli
D. Trachea
A

B. Lower airway

1
Q
The respiratory control center located deep within the brain primarily monitors the level of \_\_\_\_\_\_\_ to maintain proper respiratory rate and volume.
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Carbon monoxide
C. Oxygen
D. Glucose
A

A. Carbon dioxide

2
Q
Your patient has been in respiratory distress for approximately 30 minutes. Your assessment reveals pale skin and cyanosis of the nail beds. These are signs of:
A. Respiratory failure
B. Asthma
C. Hypoxia
D. Respiratory arrest
A

C. Hypoxia

3
Q
You are caring for a patient complaining of shortness of breath. Her respiratory rate is 24 with good tidal volume. Following the primary assessment, you should:
A. Provide supplemental oxygen.
B. Take a set of vital signs.
C. Perform a rapid 2ndary assessment.
D. Place her in the recovery position.
A

A. Provide supplemental oxygen

4
Q
You are caring for a 17 year old female who began experiencing difficulty breathing during a soccer practice. You find her on her knees in the tripod position with a respiratory rate of 24 and shallow. She has taken two puffs from he inhaler with no relief. Her condition is most likely caused by:
A. Bronchitis
B. Asthma
C. Emphysema
D. Hyperventilation
A

B. Asthma

5
Q
You are caring for a patient win a history of chronic bronchitis. He is sitting upright in a chair and in obvious distress. His Respirations are 26 and shallow, and he is still able to speak in full sentences. The ABCs are intact. You should:
A. Place him in the recovery position.
B. Suction his airway.
C. Perform a secondary assessment.
D. Provide supplemental oxygen.
A

D. Provide supplemental oxygen.

6
Q
Which medical condition listed below causes inflammation of the bronchioles and excess mucous production within the airways? It is also characterized by a productive cough.
A. Asthma
B. Bronchitis
C. Emphysema 
D. Hyperventilation
A

B. Bronchitis

7
Q

You have been dispatched to a call for respiratory distress and find a 67 year old male in severe distress. He has a history of emphysema and is on home oxygen at 2 LPM by cannula. His respirations are 32, and he is unable to speak more than two or three wors at a time. His airway is clear. You should:
A. Increase the home oxygen to 6 LPM.
B. Place him on a non rebreather mask at 15 LPM.
C. Provide positive pressure ventilations.
D. Remove the home oxygen.

A

C. Provide positive pressure ventilations.

8
Q

You are caring for a 22 year old female with difficulty breathing. She has no prior medical history and states that she began having trouble breathing following an argument with her boyfriend. She states that her fingers are numb and tingly. You should:
A. Provide low-flow oxygen & attempt to calm her down.
B. Provide high-flow oxygen & transport.
C. Not provide oxygen & transport.
D. Massage her hands and fingers while calming her down.

A

A. Provide low-flow oxygen & attempt to calm her down.

9
Q
Which one of the medical conditions listed below results in the loss of elasticity of the lungs & the retention of carbon dioxide?
A. Asthma
B. Bronchitis
C. Emphysema 
D. Hyperventilation
A

C. Emphysema

10
Q

One of the most common calls for EMR is difficulty breathing (respiratory compromise). True or false?

A

True

11
Q

The most common causes of respiratory compromise include:

A
  1. Asthma
  2. Bronchitis
  3. Emphysema
  4. Hyperventilation
    Note: also from being exposed to a poison or something to which the patient is allergic.
12
Q

If left untreated, respiratory distress can lead to respiratory failure & eventually death. True or false?

A

True

13
Q

Asthma is a disease of the upper airway. True or false?

A

False, it is a disease of the lower airway.

14
Q

Many things such as allergies, dust, stress, & exercise can trigger __________.

A

Asthma

15
Q

What is bronchitis?

A

An inflammation of the bronchi & bronchioles & it results in an overproduction of mucus over the inside lining of the airways.

16
Q

Bronchitis may be chronic & may last for several months at a time with a productive cough. True or false?

A

True

17
Q

Over a slow progressive period of time, a loss of elasticity of the lung tissue and alveoli is _________ and results in severe respiratory distress.

A

Emphysema

18
Q

Emphysema results in poor gas exchange & a trapping of excess carbon dioxide within the lungs. True or false?

A

True

19
Q

What is hyperventilation?

A

A temporary condition characterized by uncontrolled, rapid, deep breathing that is usually self-correcting; often caused by anxiety but may have more serious causes as well.

20
Q

What is cyanosis?

A

The bluish discoloration of the tissues caused by a lack of sufficient oxygen in the blood.

21
Q

Care for respiratory compromise is the same regardless of cause. True or false?

A

True

22
Q

The steps of care for respiratory compromise are:

A
  1. Support of the ABCs
  2. Provide supplemental oxygen
  3. Calm & reassure the patient
  4. Allow the patient to maintain a position of comfort & do not force the patient to lie down unless they become unresponsive.
23
Q

Respiratory compromise is often a true emergency & rapid transport by _________ _________ is often the most appropriate care.

A

ALS ambulance

24
Q

What is included in the respiratory system?

A
Nose 
Mouth
Nasopharyngeal
Oropharnyx
Epiglottis
Larynx
Vocal cords 
Trachea 
Carina
Main stem bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli
25
Q

A condition that affects the ability to breathe adequately is called:

A

Respiratory compromise

26
Q

The control center for the respirator drive is located deep in the brain & carefully monitors the level of carbon dioxide in the blood & adjusts both rate & volume as necessary. True or false?

A

True

27
Q

The exchange of carbon dioxide & oxygen occurs in the ________.

A

Alveoli

28
Q

Define hypercarbia

A

The condition of having too much carbon dioxide in the blood.

29
Q

Define hypoxia.

A

An inadequate supply of oxygen.

30
Q

Respiratory distress is also known as:

A

Dyspnea

31
Q

Respiratory distress (aka dysphasia) is characterized by:

A

Increased work of breathing
Increased respiratory rate
Used of accessory muscles to promote breathing

32
Q

What is respiratory failure?

A

A respiratory condition characterized by altered mental status, slow respiration rate, & shallow tidal volume. It occurs when the body’s normal ability to compensate for inadequate oxygen fails.

33
Q

What is the device that measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood?

A

Capnograph

34
Q

What is COPD & what are the symptoms?

A

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-A group of lung diseases that commonly cause respiratory distress & shortness of breath.
Symptoms: History of respiratory problems,
Cough, Shortness of breath, Tightness in chest, Swelling in lower extremities, Rapid pulse, Barrel chest, Dizziness, Pale or blue (cyanotic) skin, Desire to sit upright at all times

35
Q

What are the attributes of normal breathing?

A

Breathing that is sufficient to sustain life. It is easy & adequate & sometimes referred to as adequate breathing. It has a normal respiration rate, depth, & very little effort or work of breathing. Respiratory rhythm should be regular, should occur at regular intervals & last the same amount of time.

36
Q

What is the primary muscle of respiration?

A

Diaphragm

37
Q

Describe how the diaphragm works.

A

The diaphragm moves gently & smoothly down when we breathe in & upward when we breathe out.

38
Q

What is the normal respiration rate for adults, children, & infants?

A

Adult: 12-24 per minute
Child: 16-32 per minute
Infant: 24-48 per minute

39
Q

What is the normal depth for breaths?

A

AKA: Tidal Volume

Normal breaths are not too shallow or too deep. The best indicator is a good rise & fall of the chest.

40
Q

What is Work of Breathing?

A

How much effort it takes for the patient to move each breath in & out.

41
Q

How long should exhaling take?

A

About twice as long as it takes to inhale.

42
Q

What is abnormal breathing & what are the signs?

A

Breathing that is not sufficient to sustain life.
Signs: Increased work of breathing (appears labored & difficult)
Increased respiratory rate (early sign)
Decreased respiratory rate (late sign)
Respirations too deep or too shallow
Irregular breathing rhythm
Audible breath sounds (gargling, snoring, wheezing)

43
Q

What is the Tripod Position?

A

A body position characterized by the person sitting forward with hands on knees.

44
Q

What are accessory muscles?

A

Muscles of the neck, chest, & abdomen that can assist during respiratory difficulty.

45
Q

What is wheezing?

A

A course whistling often heard in the lungs when a patient with respiratory compromise exhales. May also be heard on inspiration. Most often heard when auscultated with a stethoscope.

46
Q

What is metered-dose inhaler?

A

The device used to deliver medication that helps to dilate the bronchiole passages for asthma relief.

47
Q

What is a bronchodilator?

A

The name of the medicines used to help breathing for asthma patients.

48
Q

What is bronchitis?

A

A condition of the lungs characterized by inflammation of the bronchial airways & mucous formation; a form of COPD.

49
Q

What is chronic bronchitis?

A

A productive cough that continues for 3 consecutive months & occurs for at least 2 consecutive years.

50
Q

What is emphysema?

A

A progressive condition of the lungs characterized by destruction of the alveoli; a form of COPD.

51
Q

Emphysema is common for those who have been exposed to environmental toxins over a long period of time. It causes the lungs to become less elastic causing carbon dioxide to be trapped. True or false?

A

True

52
Q

Barrel chest appearance & pursed-lip breathing are associated with a person who has emphysema. True or false?

A

True

53
Q

Patients should self administer prescribed medication whether it has expired or not. True or false?

A

False