Caring for Common Medical Emergencies Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

EMR - First on Scene - 9th Edition La Baudour - Bergeron > Caring for Common Medical Emergencies Chapter 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Caring for Common Medical Emergencies Chapter 15 Deck (78)
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0
Q
A patient who is unresponsive and having full body muscle contractions is likely experiencing:
A. Stroke
B. Seizure
C. Heart attack
D. Respiratory distress
A

B. Seizure

1
Q

Altered mental status is best defined as a patient who:
A. Is unresponsive
B. Cannot speak properly
C. Cannot tell you what day it is
D. Is not alert or responsive to surroundings

A

D. Is not alert or responsive to surroundings.

2
Q

Which one of the following is the best example of appropriate care for a seizure patient?
A. Keep him from injuring himself & place him in the recovery position.
B. Place him in a semi-sitting position & apply oxygen following the seizure.
C. Place him in a prone position & provide oxygen by nasal cannula.
D. Restrain him & assist ventilations with a bag-mask device.

A

A keep him from injuring himself & place him in the recovery position following the seizure.

3
Q
A patient who presents with abnormal behavior that is unacceptable to family members & others is said to be experiencing a(n):
A. Psychosis
B. Mental breakdown
C. Altered behavioral state
D. Behavioral emergency
A

D. Behavioral emergency

4
Q

One of the best techniques for dealing with a patient experiencing a behavioral emergency is to:
A. Not let the patient know what you are doing.
B. Not believe a thing the patient says
C. Speak in a calm & reassuring voice
D. Acknowledge the “voices” he is hearing.

A

C. Speak in a calm & reassuring voice.

5
Q
Which one of the following is NOT evaluated as part of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?
A. Abnormal speech
B. Equal circulation
C. Facial droop
D. Arm drift
A

B. Equal circulation

6
Q
Your patient is presenting with an altered mental status & history of diabetes. He states that he took his normal dose of insulin this morning but has not had anything to eat. His most likely problem is:
A. Hyperglycemia 
B. Anaphylaxis 
C. Hypoglycemia
D. A stroke
A

C. Hypoglycemia

7
Q
Activated charcoal is only recommended for what type of poisoning?
A. Ingested
B. Inhaled
C. Topical
D. Absorbed
A

A. Injested

8
Q

When called to assist with a responsive person who has taken PCP, you should first:
A. Asses her vital signs.
B. Determine if she is experiencing any hallucinations.
C. Gently restrain her.
D. Ensure the scene is safe.

A

D. Ensure the scene is safe.

9
Q
What is the most commonly abused chemical in the US?
A. Arsenic
B. Amyl nitrate
C. Butane
D. Alcohol
A

D. Alcohol

10
Q
A diabetic who forgets to take her insulin & continues to eat a meal will most likely become:
A. Hypoglycemic
B. Responsive
C. Hyperglycemic
D. Short of breath
A

C. Hyperglycemic

11
Q
What is caused by either a clot or a rupture?
A. Diabetic coma
B. Narcotic overdose
C. Stroke
D. Hallucination
A

C. Stroke

12
Q
Once a seizure has ended, the patient is said to be in the \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ state.
A. REM
B. Postictal
C. Syncopal
D. Recovery
A

B. Postictal

13
Q
The process of sending a patient's blood through an artificial filter is referred to as:
A. Photodialysis
B. Syncope
C. Hemodialysis
D. Autodialysis
A

C. Hemodialysis

14
Q
All of the following are common causes of renal failure EXCEPT.
A. Angina
B. Injury
C. Diabetes
D. Blood loss
A

A. Angina

15
Q

You are caring for a 10 tear old boy who was stung by a bee. He is crying in pain & able to move air without difficulty. You observe a small red dot where the sting occurred & he states that it itches. This is most likely a:
A. Severe reaction requiring immediate transport.
B. Mild reaction requiring immediate transport.
C. Mild reaction that may not require transport.
D. Severe reaction that does not require transport.

A

C. Mild reaction that may not require transport.

16
Q

A severe allergic reaction causes the passages:
A. And blood vessels to dilate.
B. And blood vessels to constrict.
C. To dilate & the blood vessels to constrict.
D. To constrict & the blood vessels to dilate.

A

D. To constrict & the blood vessels to dilate.

17
Q
Medical emergencies may be caused by:
A. Infections
B. Poisons
C. Failure of 1 or more of the body's organ systems 
D. All of the above
A

D. All of the above

18
Q

What the EMR observes & what the patient describes are the main clues to the patient’s problems. True or false

A

True

19
Q

If the patient appears or feels unusual in any way, _______ that there is a medical emergency. If the patient’s has abnormal vital signs, _______ that there is a medical emergency.

A

Suspect

Conclude

20
Q

One of the most common complaints that the EMR responds to is:

A

Altered mental state

21
Q

Altered mental state means:

A

A state characterized by a decrease in the patient’s alertness & responsiveness to his surroundings.

22
Q

A person with a normal mental status knows:

A
  1. Who they are (person)
  2. Where they are (place)
  3. Day & Time (time)
  4. Events going on around them (events)
23
Q

When alert & oriented to all 4 elements for evaluating mental status, a person is said to be:

A

Alert & oriented times four (A & O X 4)

24
Q

A person who knows who & where they are, but unsure of the date, time, or events is described as:

A

A & O X 2

25
Q

The person’s normal mental status is referred to as their:

A

Baseline mental status.

26
Q

You must know the normal mental status in order to determine if the person has an altered mental status. True or False?

A

True

27
Q

To determine mental status, use the _______ scale.

A

AVPU

28
Q

Convulsions are:

A

Uncontrolled muscular contractions

29
Q

What is a generalized seizure?

A

A type of seizure characterized by a loss of consciousness & full body muscle contractions.

30
Q

What is a partial seizure?

A

A seizure characterized by a temporary loss of awareness with no dramatic body movements.

31
Q

What is epilepsy?

A

A disorder of the brain that causes seizures.

32
Q

A generalized seizure is aka: _________, and a partial seizure is aka: _________

A

Grand mal seizure, and petit mal seizure.

33
Q

What is a seizure?

A

Irregular electrical activity in the brain that can cause a sudden change in mental status & behavior.

34
Q

Most seizures last less than 1 minute. True or False?

A

True

35
Q

What does fabrile mean?

A

Relating to a fever

36
Q

After a seizure, the patient will generally feel weak & tired. This is called the ________ stage.

A

Postictal

37
Q

Stroke, or brain attack, is a condition that occurs when:

A

It occurs when an area of the brain does not receive an adequate supply of blood & brain cells begin to die.

38
Q

What is the medical term for a stroke?

A

A cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

39
Q

What is the tool used for determining stroke?

A

Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS)

40
Q

What assessment characteristics are used with CPSS to evaluate for the likelihood of stroke?

A

FAST
F: Facial droop (ask patient to smile & show teeth)
A: Arm drift (ask patient to hold arms straight out in front & close their eyes)
S: Abnormal Speech (observe slurring, inability to respond, inappropriate words)
T: Time (note time of event so that special meds can be administered when appropriate.

41
Q

Medications used to diminish the long term effects of a stroke are called:

A

Thrombolytics

42
Q

What is glucose?

A

A form of simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body’s cells.

43
Q

What must be present for glucose to enter the body’s cells?

A

Insulin

44
Q

What is diabetes?

A

A disease that prevents individuals from producing enough insulin or from using insulin effectively. Aka: diabetes mellitus

45
Q

What is Hyperglycemia?

A

High blood sugar. It gradually builds, taking several hours or days to develop.
Patient eats but doesn’t take insulin or not enough for what was eaten.

46
Q

What are signs & symptoms of hyperglycemia?

A
Extreme thirst
Abdominal pain
Dry warm skin, sometimes reddened
Rapid or weak pulse
Sweet or fruity odor on patient breath
Dry mouth
Restlessness
Altered mental status, including coma
47
Q

What is hypoglycemia?

A

Low blood sugar. It usually comes on quickly, over a few minutes or a few hours.
Patient has too much insulin, eaten too little, over exerted himself, experienced excessive emotional stress or any combination.

48
Q

What are signs & symptoms of hypoglycemia?

A
Altered mental status 
Pale, cool skin, often moist
Rapid, strong pulse
Dizziness, headache
Normal or shallow breathing
Very hungry
Some patients will develop seizures without early care
49
Q

Hypoglycemia is also called:

A

Insulin shock

50
Q

Often, a patient suffering from diabetic symptoms appears:

A

Drunk

51
Q

What is an overdose?

A

An incident that occurs when a person takes in more of a medication than is normal. It can happen intentionally or by accident.

52
Q

What are the 4 ways (routes of exposure) poison can enter the body?

A
  1. Ingestion: taken in by way of the mouth.
  2. Inhalation: taken in by breathing (inhaling).
  3. Absorption: taken into the body through the skin & body tissue.
  4. Injection: substances taken directly into the blood stream.
53
Q

What is the number for the national poison control center?

A

1-800-222-1222

54
Q

How many’s regional poison control centers in the United States?

A

60, most of which are staffed 24 hours a day.

55
Q

In order to avoid vomiting, how should liquids be administered?

A

By sipping

56
Q

Anaphylactic shock often occurs in all cases of injected poisons. True or false?

A

True

57
Q

What is the treatment for stings?

A
  1. Take BSI precautions and perform the primary assessment.
  2. administer oxygen as per local protocols.
  3. Scrape away bee and wasp stingers and venom sacs. Do not pull out stingers. Always scrape them from the patient’s skin. A plastic credit card works well as a scraper.
  4. Place an ice bag or cold pack over the bitten or stung area.
58
Q

What is withdrawal from alcohol called?

A

Deliririum tremendous (DTs)

59
Q

What are the classifications of drugs and what are their definitions?

A

Uppers: stimulants affecting the nervous system to excite the user.
Downers: depressants meant to affect the central nervous system to relax the user.
Narcotics: They affect the nervous system and change many of the normal activities of the body.
Hallucinogens: mind altering drugs that act on the nervous system to produce an intense state of excitement or distortion of the users surroundings.
Volatile chemicals: Chemicals that give an initial rush but then depress the central nervous system.

60
Q

Always assume drug abuse is a condition by itself. True or False?

A

False. Never just assume drug use by itself..

61
Q

In withdrawal, what symptoms are present?

A

Shaking, anxiety, nausea, confusion, irritability, sweating, & increased pulse & breathing rates.

62
Q

For all cases of possible drug overdose, you should contact:

A

Contact medical direction & your local poison control center.

63
Q

What is sepsis?

A

A widespread generalized infection of the body.

64
Q

An open wound not properly cleaned can lead to:

A

Redness, swelling, & pain referred to as an infection.

65
Q

When people come in contact with a substance they are allergic to they have:

A

An allergic reaction.

66
Q

An extreme case of an allergic reaction is called:

A

Anaphylactic Shock

67
Q

Epinephrine is a medication, a form of adrenaline that helps to open the airway passages & constrict the blood vessels. True or False?

A

True

68
Q

Kidney failure is also known as:

A

Renal failure

69
Q

The most common type of dialysis is called:

A

Hemodialysis

70
Q

Dialysis is:

A

The process of artificially removing excess water & waste products from the blood.

71
Q

The access point for dialysis is called:

A

A shunt or fistula

72
Q

Behavior is:

A

The manner in which a person acts or performs, including physical & mental activities.

73
Q

Exhibited behavior that is unacceptable or intolerable to others is known as:

A

Abnormal or atypical

74
Q

Situations where the patient exhibits abnormal behavior that is unacceptable or intolerable to the patient, family, or community are called:

A

A Behavioral Emergency

75
Q

When assessing the potential for violence:

A

Your priority is to prevent the patient from harming himself or others while also protecting yourself.

76
Q

Physical restraint of a patient should be the last resort taken only when it is clear that without doing so the patient may harm himself. True or False?

A

True

77
Q

Caring for the poisoning or overdose patient is primarily about protecting the patient’s airway, administering oxygen, activating the EMS system, & monitoring the ABCs. True or False?

A

True