Caring for Chest and Abdominal Emergencies Chapter 21 Flashcards Preview

EMR - First on Scene - 9th Edition La Baudour - Bergeron > Caring for Chest and Abdominal Emergencies Chapter 21 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Caring for Chest and Abdominal Emergencies Chapter 21 Deck (39)
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0
Q

You are caring for a patient who was struck in the lateral chest by a blunt object. You palpate a flail segment on the right lateral chest area. This type of injury is most likely to affect the:
A. A patient’s ability to breathe normally
B. Heart and lungs
C. Patient’s pulse rate
D. Patient’s ability to cough

A

A. Patient’s ability to breathe normally

1
Q
In the case of an open chest wound, place an occlusive direct dressing over the open wound and then:
A. Cover it loosely with a cloth bandage
B. Tape it on three or four sides
C. Hold it in place with a gloved hand
D. Pack the opening with clean gauze
A

B. Tape it on three or four sides

2
Q
A 29 year old male has been stabbed once in the posterior chest. How would you describe this injury when completing your documentation?
A. Evisceration
B. Closed chest injury
C. Open chest injury
D. Flail chest
A

C. Open chest injury

3
Q
You are caring for a patient who was shot in the right lower chest. Which of the following signs would indicate this patient is developing a tension pneumothorax?
A. Unequal chest rise
B. Tracheal deviation
C. Rapid breathing
D. Rapid pulse
A

B. Tracheal deviation

4
Q

The purpose of placing an occlusive dressing over an open chest wound is to:
A. Control the bleeding
B. Keep chest contents from spilling out
C. Keep air from entering the chest cavity
D. Make it easier for the patient to breathe

A

C. Keep air from entering the chest cavity

5
Q

You are caring for a patient with an open chest wound and have covered the wound with an occlusive dressing. The patient becomes increasingly short of breath. You should:
A. Add another dressing to the wound
B. Release the dressing to allow air to escape
C. Apply more pressure to the wound
D. Remove the dressing altogether

A

B. Release the dressing to allow air to escape

6
Q
You are caring for a patient who appears to have only injured a rib or two. There is no flail segment and the patient is alert and oriented. What is the most likely potential complication from a simple rib injury?
A. Hypoxia from shallow respirations
B. Puncture of the heart or lung
C. Internal bleeding
D. Pneumothorax
A

A. Hypoxia from shallow respirations

7
Q

Which one of the following is the most appropriate care for an open abdominal injury?
A. Pack the inside of the wound with clean dressings
B. Poor sterile saline over the wound
C. Cover the wound with a dry, clean dressing
D. Cover the wound with moist, sterile dressing

A

D. Cover the wound with moist, sterile dressing

8
Q

You are caring for a patient with abdominal pain for the past two days. She states that she has had a bowel movement this morning that was very dark and tarry. Those signs and symptoms are consistent with:

A

A. Internal bleeding that is old
B. Internal bleeding that is fresh
C. Appendicitis
D. And evisceration

9
Q
A patient has been shot in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. You should assume which one of the following organs may have been injured?
A. Stomach
B. Liver
C. Spleen
D. Pancreas
A

B. Liver

10
Q

Signs and symptoms of an abdominal emergency include:

A

Pain,
rigidity,
distention,
blood in the vomit or feces

11
Q

How should abdominal evisceration’s be treated?

A
  1. Cover with a sterile moist dressing

2. Cover with plastic to minimize the chances that the exposed organs will dry out

12
Q

How do you treat an open chest injury that is a sucking chest wound?

A

Cover immediately with an occlusive dressing.

13
Q

What should you do when assessing a patient with a chest injury?

A

Be sure to expose all areas and palpate thoroughly with both hands. Treat with high flow oxygen

14
Q

What is a flailed chest and what is its impact on the patient?

A

A chest injury where two or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. This compromises the integrity of the chest wall and makes it very difficult for the patient to breathe adequately.

15
Q

What is another name for the chest cavity?

A

Thoracic cavity

16
Q

What is mediastinum?

A

The structure that divides the 2 halves of the chest cavity.

17
Q

How many pairs of ribs does the body have?

A

12

18
Q

What is the thin saclike structure that surrounds each lung?

A

Pleura

19
Q

What is pleural space?

A

The potential space that exists between the visceral and parietal pleura in the chest.

20
Q

What is a penetrating chest injury?

A

An injury that breaks the skin and penetrates the chest wall.

21
Q

What are the three main ways the chest can be injured?

A

Blunt trauma
Penetrating objects
Compression

22
Q

What is a pneumothorax?

A

The chest cavity filling with air from a ruptured lung.

23
Q

What is a spontaneous pneumothorax?

A

A ruptured lung without any outside force.

24
Q

What is crepitus?

A

Bones rubbing together heard as a grating sound.

25
Q

What is a hemothorax?

A

Blood in the chest cavity.

26
Q

What is paradoxical movement?

A

The abnormal movement of the chest wall commonly associated with the flail chest.

27
Q

What is a sucking chest wound?

A

An open chest wound that is characterized by a sucking sound each time the patient inhales.

28
Q

What is an open chest injury?

A

An injury to the chest that is associated with an open wound.

29
Q

What is an occlusive dressing and how should it fit on a wound?

A

A dressing of sterile gauze that is saturated with petroleum jelly. It should extend two or more inches beyond the edges of the wound.

30
Q

What is the diaphragm?

A

The primary muscle of respiration; divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity

31
Q

What are the solid organs of the abdomen and pelvis?

A

Liver, spleen, kidneys, and pancreas

32
Q

What are the hollow organs of the abdomen and pelvis?

A

Stomach, gallbladder, urinary bladder, intestines bladder uterus and fallopian tubes,

33
Q

What are the differences in hollow and solid organs?

A

Solid organs:
Contain a significant blood supply,
May result in significant blood loss when damaged
Hollow organs:
Often contain fluids that when allowed to spill out into the abdomen will cause pain

34
Q

What is the body space containing the kidneys?

A

The retroperitoneal cavity

35
Q

The internal organs of the abdomen are lined by 2 thin layers of tissue called the:

A

Peritoneum

36
Q

What is guarding?

A

Curling up in the fetal position and holding their hands over the painful area.

37
Q

What is distention?

A

Swelling of the abdomen

38
Q

What is an evisceration?

A

An open wound of the abdomen characterized by protrusion of the intestines through the abdominal wall.