Caring for Head and Spine Injuries Chapter 20 Flashcards Preview

EMR - First on Scene - 9th Edition La Baudour - Bergeron > Caring for Head and Spine Injuries Chapter 20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Caring for Head and Spine Injuries Chapter 20 Deck (38)
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0
Q

What is the most important initial step that you can take when caring for a person with a suspected spine injury?
A. Assess the patient for circulation, sensation, and movement.
B. Determine the mechanism of injury.
C. Transport the patient to the nearest trauma center.
D. Manually stabilize the patient’s head and neck.

A

D. Manually stabilize the patient’s head and neck.

1
Q

Which one of the following mechanisms of injury would cause you to suspect spine injury?
A. Circular saw amputation of fingers.
B. Fall from an anchored speedboat.
C. Bicycle crash.
D. Self-inflicted gunshot wound to the hip.

A

C. Bicycle crash

2
Q
You are requested to assist with an unresponsive person who was found facedown on a hotel lobby floor. How would you choose to move the patient into the recovery position?
A. Two person extremity left
B. Three-person log roll
C. With a stair chair
D. It would be better to wait for EMS
A

B. Three person log roll

3
Q

Your patient is unresponsive following a motorcycle crash on the interstate. You find that he is not breathing and you try to open his airway with the Jaw thrust maneuver but are not successful. What should you do next?
A. Maintain manual stabilization and wait for EMS to arrive.
B. Attempt the head tilt/chin lift maneuver.
C. Attempt to ventilate the patient airway.
D. Begin chest compressions.

A

B. Attempt the head tilt/chin lift maneuver.

4
Q
Combative behavior, abnormal breathing patterns, and repetitive questions are all signs of a(an):
A. Cervical spine injury
B. Unresponsive person
C. Peripheral nervous system trauma
D. Injury to the head
A

D. Injury to the head

5
Q
You witness a low-speed ATV collision at a local recreational area that knocks both riders from their vehicles. Neither of them is wearing a helmet but both quickly get back to their feet. You noticed one of them is walking oddly as he retrieves his vehicle. You ask if he is okay and he tells you that his legs "just feel really heavy." You should suspect:
A. Head injury
B. Internal bleeding
C. Spine injury
D. Hip dislocation
A

C. Spine injury

6
Q
What are the two main components of the central nervous system?
A. Peripheral and central nerves
B. Disks and vertebrae
C. Brain and spine
D. Spine and nerves
A

C. Brain and spine

7
Q

You are caring for a motorcycle rider who was ejected from his vehicle. You are the only rescuer at the scene. He is responsive and breathing adequately. You should:
A. Remove the helmet and clear the airway
B. Maintain manual stabilization of the head and helmet
C. Roll him onto his side to inspect his back
D. Ask him to remove his own helmet

A

B. Maintain manual stabilization of the head and helmet

8
Q

The purpose of a properly sized cervical collar is to:
A. Completely immobilize the head and neck
B. Completely immobilize the neck only
C. Maintain an open airway
D. Remind the cooperative patient not to move her neck

A

D. Remind the cooperative patient not to move her neck

9
Q

You are caring for patient with a suspected open skull injury. When attempting to control bleeding, you should:
A. Apply firm fingertip pressure on the open wound
B. Use gentle pressure with the palm of one hand.
C. Tightly wrap a pressure bandage around the skull.

A

B. Use gentle pressure with the palm of one hand.

10
Q

What is an open head injury?

A

A head injury where there is a break in the bone and the overlying soft tissue.

11
Q

What is a closed head injury?

A

A head injury with no opening of the skull; however, there may be soft tissue damage of the scalp.

12
Q

What is your first concern when caring for a person with a suspected head injury?

A

Manage & monitor the ABCs.

13
Q

To open the airway of an unresponsive, injured person with a suspected neck injury, begin with the ____ ______ __________. If the jaw thrust maneuver is unsuccessful, use the _________________ maneuver.

A

Jaw thrust maneuver

Head tilt/chin lift

14
Q

Once you have confirmed that the ABCs are intact, your primary concern becomes:

A

Stabilization of the head, neck, and spine

15
Q

What area inside the skull is where the brain is located?

A

The cranial vault

16
Q

What makes the head and neck susceptible to injury?

A

Its ability to twist and move in many directions.

17
Q

What is the only movable joint in the head?

A

The lower jaw bone, or mandible.

18
Q

What is responsible for the body’s involuntary functions such as heartbeat, respirations, and temperature regulation?

A

The central nervous system

19
Q

What is the peripheral nervous system?

A

Many nerves that extend from the spinal cord throughout the body. These nerves carry messages from the brain to the body and from the body back to the brain.

20
Q

What are the three protective layers of the brain called?

A

Meninges

21
Q

What is the fluid around the brain and spinal cord called and what is its purpose?

A

Cerebrospinal fluid

It serves as a protective cushion in the event of an injury

22
Q

How many bones in the spinal column?

A

33 individual bones called vertebrae.

23
Q

What is a concussion?

A

A concussion occurs when a blow to the head does not cause an open head injury but does cause damage to the brain. It may be minor, without a loss of consciousness; mild, causing a headache after a brief loss of consciousness; or may be severe, causing a prolonged loss of consciousness and abnormal vital signs. Sometimes short-term memory is lost.

24
Q

What is a brain contusion?

A

A bruising that occurs when the force of the blow is great enough to rupture blood vessels on the surface or deep within the brain. In a closed head injury the blood has no opening from which to drain. The blood builds up inside the school, presses on the brain, and effects or impairs its function or ability to send messages to the body.

25
Q

What are the different mechanisms of spinal injuries?

A

Flexion injury, compression injury, hyperextension injury, distraction injury, penetration injury, Flexion-rotation injury,

26
Q

A patient with facial injuries is at risk for airway compromise. True, or False?

A

True

27
Q

Any injury to the brain can disrupt normal breathing and cause the patient to become __________.

A

Hypoxic

28
Q

What is paralysis?

A

The loss of mobility and feeling.

29
Q

If a patient has numbness, loss of feeling, or paralysis in the legs with no problems in the arms, the injury to the spine is:

A

Probably below the neck.

30
Q

If numbness, loss of feeling, or paralysis involves the arms and legs, the injury is:

A

Probably in the neck.

31
Q

What is posturing?

A

An abnormal Flexion or extension of the arms.

32
Q

What is another name for a cervical collar?

A

Extrication collar

33
Q

What are the guidelines to ensure a proper fit for cervical collar?

A
  1. Once in place, check to see that the sides of the collar do not ride too far above or below the earlobes.
  2. Confirm the chin fits properly on the collar. The bony part of the chin should be well supported by the collar.
  3. The collar should be snug on all sides and not fit too tight or too loosely.
  4. Consider using a different size or adjusting the collar if it does not fit properly.
34
Q

Cervical collars will only minimize movement of the neck of a cooperative patient. True, or False?

A

True. A patient who is combative or otherwise uncooperative can still move his or her neck even with a cervical collar in place.

35
Q

What are the sizes of helmets?

A

Half-size, three-quarter size, and full-size.

36
Q

Remove a helmet if you find the following:

A
  1. The helmet interferes with your ability to assess or manage the patient’s airway and breathing.
  2. The helmet does not fit snugly, and the patient’s head moves inside the helmet.
  3. The helmet interferes with placing the patient on a spine board in a neutral, in-line position. When the helmet rests on the spine board, its size may force the patient’s head forward and close the airway. Padding can be placed under the patient’s shoulders to prevent hyperflexion and maintain an in-line position.
  4. Patient is in cardiac or respiratory arrest. Quickly remove the helmet while I partner stabilizes the head. Proceed with CPR steps, using the jaw thrust maneuver.
37
Q

Helmets should be removed using 2 people. True, or False?

A

True.