Caring for Environmental Emergencies Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

EMR - First on Scene - 9th Edition La Baudour - Bergeron > Caring for Environmental Emergencies Chapter 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Caring for Environmental Emergencies Chapter 16 Deck (41)
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0
Q

In which of the following situations is the patient losing body heat primarily by conduction?
A. A 66 year old male is found lying on the frozen ground without a coat.
B. A 14 year old male is wearing wet clothing after falling out of his boat while fishing.
C. A 23 year old female is outside in cool, windy weather.
D. An elderly female is breathing into the cool night air.

A

A. A 66 year old male is found lying on the frozen ground without a coat.

1
Q
More serious heat-related injuries should be suspected when the patient presents with:
A. Feeling lightheaded.
B. muscle cramps.
C. Hot, dry skin.
D. Weakness.
A

C. Hot, dry skin.

2
Q

Your patient is a 34 year old male who has been working outside in a hot, humid climate. He is alert & oriented, complaining of feeling weak & dizzy. His skin is cool & moist, & he has a heart rate of 104, a blood pressure of 110/70, & respirations of 16. You should:
A. Place cold packs at the groin, armpits, & neck.
B. Move the patient to a cool area in the shade.
C. Offer the patient some salt crackers.
D. Wet the skin, turn the AC on high, & vigorously fan the patient.

A

B. move the patient to a cool area in the shade.

3
Q
A patient who is experiencing an abnormally low body core temperature is said to be:
A. Hyperthermic
B. Cyanotic
C. Hypothermic
D. Hyperglycemia
A

C. Hypothermic

4
Q
An injury characterized by the freezing or near freezing of a body part is known as:
A. Frostbite
B. Frostnip
C. Hypothermia
D. Cold bite
A

A. Frostbite

5
Q

All of the following are appropriate steps in the management of a patient with a generalized cold emergency EXEPT:
A. Removing the patient from the cold environment.
B. Protecting him from further heat loss.
C. Providing warm liquids to drink.
D. Monitoring his vital signs.

A

C. Providing warm liquids to drink.

6
Q
A patient who presents with warm, moist skin; weakness; & nausea is likely experiencing:
A. Heat exhaustion
B. Heat stroke
C. Heat cramps
D. Mild heat stroke
A

A. Heat exhaustion

7
Q

Your patient was hiking & was bitten on the ankle by a rattlesnake. When caring for this patient, you should:
A. Keep the foot lower than the level of the patient’s heart.
B. Elevate the foot on pillows.
C. Apply a tourniquet above the bite.
D. Apply ice to the area of the bite.

A

A. Keep the foot lower than the level of the patient’s heart.

8
Q
It is late winter & you respond to an alley to find a homeless man lying on the ground. Your patient presents with confusion, shivering, & muscle stiffness. Based on his presentation, this man's likely problem is:
A. A localized cold injury.
B. Frostnip
C. Generalized frostbite
D. Generalized hypothermia
A

D. Generalized hypothermia

9
Q
You are caring for a person who fell from a rope swing, landed in the water, & is now unresponsive. She has a large laceration on the top of her head. You should:
A. Suspect spine injury.
B. Begin CPR in the water.
C. Drag her by one arm to shore.
D. Wait for EMS before beginning care.
A

A. Suspect spine injury.

10
Q

How do you provide care for injected poisons other than snakebite?

A
  1. Care for shock
  2. Scrape away stingers & venom sacs
  3. Place an ice bag or cold pack over the area
11
Q

How do you care for snakebite?

A
  1. Keep the patient calm & lying down.
  2. Keep bitten extremities immobilized.
  3. Alert dispatch.
  4. Provide care for shock.
12
Q

Many submersion injuries are related to the sport of scuba diving & result when a person ascends too quickly. True or False?

A

True

13
Q

What condition results when tiny gas bubbles form in the tissues, causing pain?

A

The “Bends”

14
Q

What happens in severe cases of Bends”?

A

The bubbles form an air embolism, resulting in death.

15
Q

What are the signs of anaphylactic shock?

A
Burning or itching skin
Hives
Difficulty breathing
Rapid, weak pulse
Swelling of the face & tongue
Cyanosis
Altered mental status
16
Q

How does the body lose heat?

A
  1. Radiation
  2. Conduction
  3. Convection
  4. Evaporation
  5. Respiration
17
Q

An abnormally high body temperature is called:

A

Hyperthermia

18
Q

Early signs & symptoms of hyperthermia are:

A
  1. Cramps
  2. Excessive Sweating
  3. Rapid weak pulse
  4. Weakness
19
Q

Heat cramps are:

A

Sudden & sometimes severe muscle cramps, most often occurring in the legs.

20
Q

In cold environments, body heat may be lost quicker than it can be generated. True or False?

A

True

21
Q

What do frostbite patients experience?

A

In the affected area:

  1. Feeling of cold
  2. Pain
  3. Numbness or tingling
22
Q

What is the process of maintaining proper body temperature & where is it controlled?

A

Temperature regulation

The brain through various processes

23
Q

When does hyperthermia occur?

A

When the when the body’s heat gain is faster than the heat can be shed.

24
Q

What is radiation?

A

The loss of body heat to the atmosphere or nearby objects without physical contact.

25
Q

What is conduction?

A

Transferring of body heat through direct contact with another object or the ground.

26
Q

What is convection?

A

Body heat lost to the surrounding air & moves away, replaced by cooler air. Wind can greatly increase the affects of convection..

27
Q

What is evaporation?

A

Body heat lost when perspiration is changed from liquid to vapor. Wind can greatly increase the effectiveness of evaporation.

28
Q

What is respiration?

A

Loss of body heat through the act of breathing.

29
Q

What is ‘core temperature ‘.

A

The temperature in the core of the body (typically 98.6 degrees F or 37 degrees C

30
Q

What serves as the body’s thermometer?

A

Hypothalamus

31
Q

What is heat exhaustion?

A

Prolonged exposure to heat, which creates moist, pale skin that may feel normal or cool to the touch.

32
Q

What is heat stroke?

A

Prolonged exposure to heat, which creates dry or moist skin that may feel warm or hot tithe touch. It is a life threatening condition.

33
Q

Young children & the elderly are less likely to be susceptible to the cold. True or False?

A

False-more susceptible

34
Q

Between 7-8,000 people in the US are bitten by poisonous snakes each year with fewer than 20 deaths reported annually. True or False?

A

True

35
Q

More people die from snake bites than bee or wasp bites. True or False?

A

False-more with bee & wasp bites than snake bites.

36
Q

What is drowning?

A

A process resulting in respiratory impairment from submersion in water or other type of liquid.

37
Q

What is a PFD?

A

Personal flotation devise

38
Q

What is mammalian diving reflex?

A

When the face of a person or other mammal is submerged in cold water, the slowing down of the body’s metabolism, which results in a decrease in oxygen consumption resulting in a redistribution of blood to vital (brain, heart, & lungs) organs.

39
Q

What is decompression sickness?

A

Individuals who have come up too quickly from a deep, prolonged dive.

40
Q

The special unit used to provide oxygen under greatly increased pressure conditions is called a:

A

Hyperbaric chamber