Wellness and Safety of the EMR Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

EMR - First on Scene - 9th Edition La Baudour - Bergeron > Wellness and Safety of the EMR Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Wellness and Safety of the EMR Chapter 3 Deck (77):
1

Define baseline health status

A pre-employment medical examination to determine overall health status prior to beginning a job.

2

Define standard precautions

Guidelines recommended by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and prevention) that take steps to take to protect against exposure to body fluids.

3

Define universal precautions

A component of standard precautions that includes the philosophy that all patients are considered infectious until proven otherwise.

4

What does BSI stand for?

Body substance isolation

5

Define BSI

The practice of using specific barriers to minimize contact with the patient's blood and body fluids.

6

Define exposure as it relates to EMR

A condition of being subjected to fluid or substance capable of transmitting an infectious agent.

7

Identify the four routes by which pathogens enter the body

1. Ingestion
2. injection
3. absorption
4. inhalation

8

Define infection

The condition in which the body is invaded by a disease causing agent.

9

Define pathogen

An organism such as a virus or bacterium that causes infection and disease.

10

What is PPE?

Personal protective equipment such as gloves, mask, eyewear, gown, turnout gear, and helmet that protect rescuers from infection and/or from exposure to hazardous material in the dangers of rescue operations.

11

What are the four diseases most common to EMR's?

1. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
2. hepatitis
3. tuberculosis
4. meningitis

12

Describe ways AIDS or HIV can be transmitted.

1. Needle sticks
2. blood splash on mucous membranes (eye, mouth), or
3. blood contact with open skin

13

Describe ways hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted.

Needlesticks, blood splash on mucous membranes (eye, mouth), or blood contact with open skin; some risk during mouth-to-mouth CPR, and exposure to contaminated equipment and dried blood.

14

Describe ways tuberculosis (TB) can be transmitted.

Airborne aerosolized droplets

15

Describe how meningitis is transmitted.

Respiratory secretions or saliva

16

Of the four diseases most common to EMR's which have vaccines?

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), and
meningitis (for one strain)

17

What does an NFPA stand for?

National Fire Protection Association

18

Dried body fluids are potentially infectious. true or false

True

19

Following exposure to the skin what must you do?

Immediately wash the area with warm water and soap.

20

Where should you document the details of exposure?

On the appropriate form included in your employers exposure control plan.

21

Who should you report any exposure to?

Your company or agency infection control plan administrator.

22

When is it appropriate to withhold emergency care from a patient you think may have an infectious disease?

Never

23

With the proper precautions you can provide emergency care to people infected with what diseases?

All diseases (including HIV or HBV without putting yourself at risk).

24

To date, how many cases are known for emergency workers contracting HIV or HBV during routine patient care using gloves and appropriate PPE?

To date there are no known cases.

25

Before approaching the patient ensure scene safety for who?

Yourself, the patient, and bystanders.

26

What are you required to do upon liquid or droplet exposure to skin, hair, gloves, clothing, and equipment?

Contact with any unknown microbe or potential pathogen may require being seen by a physician.

27

Describe the proper removal of gloves.

Begin by grasping the outer cuff of the opposite glove. Carefully slip the glove over the hand, turning it inside out. Slip a finger of the ungloved hand under the cuff. Carefully slip it off, turning it inside out. Once removed, both gloves will end up inside out with one glove inside the other. This will contain any blood or body fluids.

28

List the 5 most well known pathogens that in recent years have received significant attention from the CDC and the media.

1. Swine flu (H1N1)
2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
3. West Nile virus
4. Avian Flu
5. Methicillian-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

29

Define hazardous materials incident.

The release of a harmful substance into the environment (Also called a hazmat incident).

30

What should you look for to identify hazardous materials?

Plackards that are color-coded and have numbers listed in the US Department of Transportation emergency response guidebook.

31

Where are you most likely to encounter a hazardous material incident?

When responding to incidents at warehouses and traffic accidents.

32

If you approach a scene containing weapons, what should you do?

Immediately contact law enforcement.

33

Define stress.

An emotionally disruptive or upsetting condition that occurs in response to adverse external influences. Stress is capable of affecting physical health. It can increase heart rate, raise blood pressure, and cause muscular tension, irritability, and depression.

34

Define critical incident.

Any situation that causes a rescuer to experience unusually strong emotions that interfere with the ability to function either during the incident or after; a highly stressful incident.

35

Define multiple casualty incident (MCI).

A single incident that involves multiple patients (Also called a mass casualty incident).

36

Define stressor.

Any emotional or physical demand that causes stress.

37

Define burnout.

And extremely emotional state characterized by emotional exhaustion, a diminished sense of personal accomplishment, and cynicism.

38

Name the signs and symptoms of stress.

Irritability with family, friends and coworkers; inability to concentrate; changes in daily activities, such as difficulty sleeping or nightmares, loss of appetite, and loss of interest in sexual activity; and anxiety, indecisiveness, guilt, isolation, and loss of interest in work or poor performance. In addition, you might experience constipation, diarrhea, headaches, nausea, and hypertension.

39

Describe the common responses to death and dying.

Denile or "not me"
Anger or "why me"
Bargaining or "okay but first let me"
Depression or "okay but I haven't"
Acceptance or "okay I'm not afraid"

40

What are some appropriate approaches when responding to death and dying of a patient's family member?

Recognize patient needs
Be tolerant
Listen empathetically
Do not give false hope or reassurance
Offer comfort

41

Define critical incident stress management (CISM).

An in-depth, broad plan designed to help rescue personnel cope with the stress resulting from a highly stressful incident.

42

Define critical incident stress debriefing (CISD).

A process in which teams of professional and peer counselor's provide emotional and psychological support to EMS personnel who are or have been involved in a critical highly stressful incident.

43

Following statements about exposures and infections is most accurate
A. all exposures result from an infection
B. all infections result from an exposure
C. infection and exposure are the same thing
D. vaccines help protect against an exposure

B. all infections result from an exposure

44

Which one of the following is not a common pathogen encountered in EMS?
A. rabies
B. HIV
C. hepatitis
D. tuberculosis

A. rabies

45

Which one of the following types of BSI precautions is most likely going to protect you from an exposure to tuberculosis?
A. gloves
B. eyeglasses
C. HEPA mask
D. gown

C. HEPA mask

46

You have arrived at the scene of a vehicle collision and there are downed power lines across the road. Which one of the following resources is most appropriate to manage this hazard?
A. law-enforcement
B. fire department
C. hazmat team
D. utility company

D. utility company

47

All of the following are common emotional reactions of an EMR who has a serious trauma, illness, or death, except:
A. depression
B. burnout
C. low blood pressure
D. insomnia

C. low blood pressure

48

The best definition of the term stressor is anything that:
A. produces wear and tear on the body's resources
B. consumes the attention of the person experiencing stress
C. puts pressure on the body
D. causes significant behavioral changes

A. produces wear and tear on the body's resources

49

Common causes of stress for EMR include all of the following except:
A. driving with lights and sirens
B. multiple casualty incidents
C. severely injured pediatric patients
D. the scene of a violent crime

A. driving with lights and sirens

50

All of the following our terms used for the stages of death and dying except:
A. denial
B. anger
C. bargaining
D. refusal

D. refusal

51

Which one of the following would be the best response by an EMR to family members who are facing the death of a loved one?
A. avoid talking directly to the patient
B. do not tolerate angry reactions
C. try your best to understand their feelings
D. tell them everything will be okay

C. try your best to understand their feelings

52

All of the following are common signs and symptoms of stress except:
A. irritability
B. difficulty sleeping
C. increased appetite
D. difficulty concentrating

C. increased appetite

53

Which one of the following statements about critical incident stress is most accurate?
A. it is rarely caused by single incident
B. it can be the result of many incidents over a long period of time
C. it affects all people the same way
D. it can always be avoided with proper preparation

B. it can be the result of many incidents over a long period of time

54

Which one of the following is the best definition of critical incident stress management?
A. it is a broad plan designed to help EMS personnel cope with job-related stress
B. it mainly consists of a defusing process
C. it is a mandatory process in which all responders must participate
D. it focuses on the appropriateness of patient care delivered at the scene

A. it is a broad plan designed to help EMS personnel cope with job-related stress

55

Take body substance isolation (BSI) precautions:
A. for TBN HBV patients only
B. for any ill or injured patient
C. only for patients who have a known infection
D. only for patients who are bleeding

B. for any ill or injured patient

56

Which one of the following is the pathogen that most often affects the lungs and can be spread by patient coughing?
A. HIV
B. hepatitis B
C. meningitis
D. tuberculosis

D. tuberculosis

57

Define stressor.

Any emotional or physical demand that causes stress.

58

Define burnout.

And extremely emotional state characterized by emotional exhaustion, a diminished sense of personal accomplishment, and cynicism.

59

Name the signs and symptoms of stress.

Irritability with family, friends and coworkers; inability to concentrate; changes in daily activities, such as difficulty sleeping or nightmares, loss of appetite, and loss of interest in sexual activity; and anxiety, indecisiveness, guilt, isolation, and loss of interest in work or poor performance. In addition, you might experience constipation, diarrhea, headaches, nausea, and hypertension.

60

Describe the common responses to death and dying.

Denile or "not me"
Anger or "why me"
Bargaining or "okay but first let me"
Depression or "okay but I haven't"
Acceptance or "okay I'm not afraid"

61

What are some appropriate approaches when responding to death and dying of a patient's family member?

Recognize patient needs
Be tolerant
Listen empathetically
Do not give false hope or reassurance
Offer comfort

62

Define critical incident stress management (CISM).

An in-depth, broad plan designed to help rescue personnel cope with the stress resulting from a highly stressful incident.

63

Define critical incident stress debriefing (CISD).

A process in which teams of professional and peer counselor's provide emotional and psychological support to EMS personnel who are or have been involved in a critical highly stressful incident.

64

Which following statements about exposures and infections is most accurate?
A. all exposures result from an infection
B. all infections result from an exposure
C. infection and exposure are the same thing
D. vaccines help protect against an exposure

B. all infections result from an exposure

65

Which one of the following is not a common pathogen encountered in EMS?
A. rabies
B. HIV
C. hepatitis
D. tuberculosis

A. rabies

66

Which one of the following types of BSI precautions is most likely going to protect you from an exposure to tuberculosis?
A. gloves
B. eyeglasses
C. HEPA mask
D. gown

C. HEPA mask

67

You have arrived at the scene of a vehicle collision and there are downed power lines across the road. Which one of the following resources is most appropriate to manage this hazard?
A. law-enforcement
B. fire department
C. hazmat team
D. utility company

D. utility company

68

All of the following are common emotional reactions of an EMR who has a serious trauma, illness, or death, except:
A. depression
B. burnout
C. low blood pressure
D. insomnia

C. low blood pressure

69

The best definition of the term stressor is anything that:
A. produces wear and tear on the body's resources
B. consumes the attention of the person experiencing stress
C. puts pressure on the body
D. causes significant behavioral changes

A. produces wear and tear on the body's resources

70

Common causes of stress for EMR include all of the following except:
A. driving with lights and sirens
B. multiple casualty incidents
C. severely injured pediatric patients
D. the scene of a violent crime

A. driving with lights and sirens

71

All of the following our terms used for the stages of death and dying except:
A. denial
B. anger
C. bargaining
D. refusal

D. refusal

72

Which one of the following would be the best response by an EMR to family members who are facing the death of a loved one?
A. avoid talking directly to the patient
B. do not tolerate angry reactions
C. try your best to understand their feelings
D. tell them everything will be okay

C. try your best to understand their feelings

73

All of the following are common signs and symptoms of stress except:
A. irritability
B. difficulty sleeping
C. increased appetite
D. difficulty concentrating

C. increased appetite

74

Which one of the following statements about critical incident stress is most accurate?
A. it is rarely caused by single incident
B. it can be the result of many incidents over a long period of time
C. it affects all people the same way
D. it can always be avoided with proper preparation

B. it can be the result of many incidents over a long period of time

75

Which one of the following is the best definition of critical incident stress management?
A. it is a broad plan designed to help EMS personnel cope with job-related stress
B. it mainly consists of a defusing process
C. it is a mandatory process in which all responders must participate
D. it focuses on the appropriateness of patient care delivered at the scene

A. it is a broad plan designed to help EMS personnel cope with job-related stress

76

Take body substance isolation BSI precautions:
A. for TBN HBV patients only
B. for any ill or injured patient
C. only for patients who have a known infection
D. only for patients who are bleeding

B. for any ill or injured patient

77

Which one of the following is the pathogen that most often affects the lungs and can be spread by patient coughing?
A. HIV
B. hepatitis B
C. meningitis
D. tuberculosis

D. tuberculosis