Medical Terminology, Human Anatomy, and Lifespan Development Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

EMR - First on Scene - 9th Edition La Baudour - Bergeron > Medical Terminology, Human Anatomy, and Lifespan Development Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology, Human Anatomy, and Lifespan Development Chapter 4 Deck (200)
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1
Q

What is the purpose of understanding medical terminology?

A

To interpret common medical terms.

2
Q

Stomato

A

Root word meaning MOUTH example stomatitis inflammation of the lining of the mouth

3
Q

Dento

A

Root word meaning TEETH example dentist

4
Q

Glosso/linguo

A

Root word meaning TONGUE. Example: glossitis, lingual nerve (inflammation of the tongue)

5
Q

Gingivo

A

Root word meaning GUMS. Example: gingivitis (inflammation of the gums)

6
Q

Encephalo

A

Root word meaning BRAIN. Example: encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)

7
Q

Gastro

A

Root word meaning STOMACH. Example: gastritis (inflammation of the stomach)

8
Q

Entero

A

Root word meaning INTESTINE. Example: gastroenteritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines)

9
Q

Colo

A

Root word meaning LARGE INTESTINE. Example: colitis (inflammation of the colon)

10
Q

Procto

A

Root word meaning ANUS/RECTUM. Example: proctitis (inflammation of the rectum)

11
Q

Hepato

A

Root word meaning LIVER. Example: hepatitis (inflammation of the liver)

12
Q

Nephro/rene

A

Root word meaning KIDNEY. Example: nephritis, renal artery (inflammation of the kidney)

13
Q

Orchido

A

Root word meaning TESTES. Example: orchiditis (inflammation of the testes)

14
Q

Oophoro

A

Root word meaning OVARY. Example: oophoritis (inflammation of an ovary)

15
Q

Hystero

A

Root word meaning UTERUS. Example: hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)

16
Q

Dermo

A

Root word meaning SKIN. Example: dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)

17
Q

Masto/mammo

A

Root word meaning BREAST. Example: mammography (image of the breast)

18
Q

Osteo

A

Root word meaning BONES. Example: osteoporosis (disease that causes weakening of the bones)

19
Q

Cardio

A

Root word meaning HEART. Example: electro cardiogram (ECG) electrical tracing of the heart

20
Q

Cysto

A

Root word meaning BLADDER. Example: cystitis (inflammation of the bladder)

21
Q

Rhino

A

Root word meaning NOSE. Example: rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal membranes)

22
Q

Phlebo/veno

A

Root word meaning VEINS. Example: phlebitis (inflammation of the vein)

23
Q

Pneumo/pulmo

A

Root word meaning LUNG. Example: pneumonitis (inflammation of a lung)

24
Q

Hemo/emia

A

Root word meaning BLOOD. Example: hematoma (localized swelling caused by blood)

25
Q

Arterio

A

Prefix meaning ARTERY. Example: Arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)

26
Q

Brady

A

Prefix meaning SLOW. Example: Bradycardia (slow heart rate)

27
Q

Cardio

A

Prefix meaning HEART. Example: electro Cardiogram (ECG)

28
Q

Hemo

A

Prefix meaning BLOOD. Example: Hematology (the study of blood)

29
Q

Hyper

A

Prefix meaning OVER, ABOVE, BEYOND. Example: Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels)

30
Q

Hypo

A

Prefix meaning BELOW, UNDER. Example: Hypothermia (low body core temperature)

31
Q

Naso

A

Prefix meaning NOSE. Example: Nasopharyngeal airway (airway placed in the nose)

32
Q

Nuero

A

Prefix meaning NERVE. Example: Neuropathy (disease of the nervous system)

33
Q

Oro

A

Prefix meaning MOUTH. Example: Oropharyngeal airway (airway placed in the mouth)

34
Q

Tachy

A

Prefix meaning RAPID. Example: Tachycardia (rapid heart rate over 100 bpm)

35
Q

Thermo

A

Prefix meaning HEAT. Example: Thermometer (instrument for measuring temperature)

36
Q

Vaso

A

Prefix meaning BLOOD VESSEL. Example: Vasoconstriction (constriction of the blood vessels)

37
Q

-ectomy

A

Suffix meaning TO CUT OUT, REMOVE. Example: appendectomy (removal of the appendix)

38
Q

-graphy/graph

A

Suffix mean RECORDING AN IMAGE. Example: mammography (x-ray of the soft tissue of the breast)

39
Q

-gram

A

Suffix meaning THE IMAGE (X-RAY). Example: mammogram

40
Q

-itis

A

Suffix meaning INFLAMMATION. Example: tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils)

41
Q

-ology/ologist

A

Suffix meaning TO STUDY, SPECIALIZE IN. Example: cardiologist (physician who studies the heart)

42
Q

-osis

A

Suffix meaning ABNORMAL CONDITION. Example: cyanosis (bluish coloration of the skin)

43
Q

-ostomy

A

Suffix meaning TO MAKE AN OPENING. Example: colostomy (surgical opening in the colon)

44
Q

-otomy

A

Suffix meaning TO CUT INTO. Example: tracheotomy (surgical whole placed in the trachea)

45
Q

-scopy/scopic

A

Suffix meaning TO LOOK, OBSERVE. Example: colonoscopy (examination of the inner colon)

46
Q

-emia

A

Suffix meaning BLOOD. Example: anemia (deficiency of red blood cells)

47
Q

Define anatomy.

A

The study of body structure.

48
Q

Define anatomical position.

A

The standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. The body is standing erect, facing the observer; arms are down at the sides, and the palms of the hands are forward.

49
Q

Define anterior.

A

The front part of the body or body part.

50
Q

Define posterior.

A

The back of the body or body part.

51
Q

Define midline.

A

An imaginary vertical line used to divide the body into right and left halves.

52
Q

Define lateral.

A

To the side, away from the midline of the body.

53
Q

Define superior.

A

Toward the head. Example: the chest is superior to the abdomen.

54
Q

Define inferior.

A

Toward the feet. Example: the lips are inferior to the nose.

55
Q

Define proximal.

A

Closer to the torso.

56
Q

Define distal.

A

Farther away from the torso.

57
Q

Define supine.

A

The patient is lying face up.

58
Q

Define prone.

A

The patient is lying facedown.

59
Q

Define lateral recumbent.

A

The patient is lying on his side (a.k.a. the recovery position, preferably on the left side).

60
Q

Describe Semi-Fowlers position.

A

The patient is sitting up at an angle.

61
Q

Describe Trendelenburg position.

A

The patient is supine at an angle with feet elevated.

62
Q

Define physiology.

A

The function of the body and it systems.

63
Q

Identify the four (4) major body cavities.

A
  1. Cranial,
  2. thoracic,
  3. abdominal,
  4. pelvic
64
Q

Describe the anatomy contained in the cranial cavity.

A

The cranial cavity houses:

  1. The brain
  2. The brain’s specialized membranes.

The spinal cord runs out of the cranium and down through the center of the vertebrae of the spine. The bones of the spine protect the spinal cord and it specialized membranes.

65
Q

Describe the anatomy contained in the thoracic cavity.

A

The thoracic cavity, also known as the chest cavity, is enclosed by the rib cage. It holds and protects the:
*lungs,
*heart,
*great blood vessels,
*part of the windpipe (trachea), and
*part of the esophagus (which is the tube leading from the throat to the stomach).
The lower border of the chest cavity is the diaphragm, which separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.

66
Q

Describe the anatomy contained in the abdominal cavity.

A

The abdominal cavity lies between the chest cavity and the pelvic cavity. The stomach,

  • liver,
  • gallbladder,
  • pancreas,
  • spleen,
  • small intestine, and
  • most of the large intestine can be found in the abdominal cavity.
67
Q

Describe the anatomy contained in the pelvic cavity.

A

The pelvic cavity is protected by the bones of the pelvic girdle. This cavity houses:

  • the urinary bladder,
  • portions of the large intestine, and
  • the internal reproductive organs.
68
Q

Describe the diaphragm.

A

The muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity used for breathing.

69
Q

Name the four (4) abdominal quadrants and their abbreviations.

A

Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
Right lower quadrant (RLQ)
Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

70
Q

What is the main point of reference when describing the four (4) quadrants of the abdominal section.

A

The navel, or umbilicus, is the main point of reference when describing the abdomen in reference to the four quadrants.

71
Q

Name the organs contained in the RUQ.

A

Most of the liver, gallbladder, and part of the small and large intestine.

72
Q

Name the organs contained in the LUQ.

A

Most of the stomach, the spleen, part of the small and large intestine, and part of the liver.

73
Q

Name the organs contained in the RLQ.

A

The appendix and part of the small and large intestine.

74
Q

Name the organs contained in the LLQ.

A

Part of the small and large intestine.

75
Q

Name the four (4) solid major organs in the abdominal cavity.

A
  1. Spleen,
  2. liver,
  3. pancreas,
  4. kidneys.
76
Q

Name the five (5) hollow major organs in the abdominal/abdomino-pelvic cavity.

A
  1. Stomach,
  2. gallbladder,
  3. large intestine,
  4. small intestine,
  5. bladder.
77
Q

Define palpate.

A

To examine by feeling with one’s hands.

78
Q

Name the primary structures associated with the respiratory system.

A

The nose (nasopharynx), mouth (oropharynx), trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and associated muscles related to breathing.

79
Q

What is the respiratory system’s primary responsibility?

A

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

80
Q

Name the primary structures associated with the circulatory system.

A

The heart, blood vessels, and blood.

81
Q

Name the two (2) sides of the circulatory system and what they do.

A

The arterial system carries oxygenated blood to the body. The venous system returns unoxygenated blood back to the heart and lungs.

82
Q

Describe the main job of the circulatory system.

A

The main job of the circulatory system is to carry well oxygenated blood and other nutrients to the body cells, and assist with the removal of the wastes and carbon dioxide from the cells.

83
Q

What is the heart muscle called?

A

Myocardium

84
Q

Where does the myocardium receives its blood supply from?

A

By way of the coronary arteries.

85
Q

Define perfusion.

A

The adequate supply of well oxygenated blood and nutrients to all vital organs.

86
Q

Why must all three (3) components of the circulatory system heart, vessels, blood be functioning properly?

A

For adequate perfusion (supply of well oxygenated blood and nutrients to all vital organs).

87
Q

What are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart called?

A

Arteries

88
Q

What are the smallest arteries called?

A

Arterioles

89
Q

What are the blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart called?

A

Veins

90
Q

What do some veins have to prevent the backward flow of blood?

A

Valves

91
Q

What are the smallest veins called?

A

Venules

92
Q

What is the responsibility of capillaries?

A

It is the exchange site between blood and tissues.

93
Q

Where does the aorta pump blood?

A

To the body.

94
Q

Where does the vena cava pump blood?

A

From the body.

95
Q

Describe how blood flows through the right side of the heart.

A

Right Side of the Heart

Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart.
As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your right atrium into your right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve.
When the ventricle is full, the tricuspid valve shuts. This prevents blood from flowing backward into the atria while the ventricle contracts.
As the ventricle contracts, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs where it is oxygenated.

96
Q

Describe how blood flows through the left side of the heart.

A

Left Side of the Heart

The pulmonary vein empties oxygen-rich blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart.
As the atrium contracts, blood flows from your left atrium into your left ventricle through the open mitral valve.
When the ventricle is full, the mitral valve shuts. This prevents blood from flowing backward into the atrium while the ventricle contracts.
As the ventricle contracts, blood leaves the heart through the aortic valve, into the aorta and to the body.

97
Q

What is the leading cause of heart attacks and strokes?

A

Atherosclerosis - as people age, cholesterol causes narrowing of the arteries in the body.

98
Q

What percent of falls involving the elderly result in at least one fractured bone?

A

33%

99
Q

With Falls involving the elderly, what are the most commonly fractured bones?

A

The hip and pelvis.

100
Q

Name the three (3)types of muscle.

A
  1. Skeletal,
  2. cardiac,
  3. smooth
101
Q

What muscle is capable of constricting and dilating?

A

Smooth muscle

102
Q

What primary structures make up the musculoskeletal system?

A
  1. Bones,
  2. muscles,
  3. tendons, and
  4. ligaments
103
Q

What is the main function of the musculoskeletal system?

A

To provide:

  1. structure support and protection for the body and internal organs, and
  2. allow for body movement.
  3. In addition, the skeletal system is responsible for the production of disease fighting white blood cells, which occurs deep within the bone.
104
Q

How many bones are in the adult body?

A

206

105
Q

What are the two (2) divisions of the skeletal system?

A
  1. Axial

2. appendicular

106
Q

What does the axial skeleton comprise of?

A
  1. skull,
  2. vertebrae,
  3. rib cage, and
  4. sternum
107
Q

What does the appendicular skeleton comprise of?

A
  1. upper and lower extremities

2. shoulder and pelvic girdles

108
Q

What is it called when two or more bones come together?

A

Joint

109
Q

Describe a ligament.

A

A tough, fibrous tissue that keeps the bones of the joint together.

110
Q

What percent of body weight do the tissues of the muscular system constitute?

A

40% - 50%

111
Q

What type of muscles do the skeletal muscles constitute?

A

Voluntary muscles, subject to conscious control.

112
Q

There are how many separate skeletal muscles?

A

501

113
Q

What is the primary function of the separate skeletal muscles?

A

They provide:

  1. contractions for movement,
  2. coordinated support for posture, and
  3. heat production
114
Q

How are muscles connected to your bones?

A

By tendons

115
Q

What are the primary structures of the nervous system?

A
  1. brain,
  2. spinal cord, and
  3. nerves that extend out to all parts of the body
116
Q

What is the main function of the nervous system?

A
  1. control movement,
  2. interpret sensations,
  3. regulate body activities, and
  4. generate memory and thought
117
Q

Name the divisions of the nervous system.

A
  1. Central,
  2. peripheral, and
  3. autonomic
118
Q

Name the components of the central nervous system.

A

Brain and spinal cord

119
Q

Name the components of the peripheral nervous system.

A

The sensory (incoming) and motor (outgoing) nerves.

120
Q

Describe how the autonomic nervous system works.

A

It has structures that parallel the spinal cord and then share the same pathways as the peripheral nerves. This division is involved with the motor impulses (outgoing commands) that travel from the central nervous system to the heart muscle, blood vessels, secreting cells of glands, and the smooth muscles of organs. The impulses will stimulate or inhibit certain activities.

121
Q

What are the primary structures of the digestive system?

A
  1. Esophagus,
  2. stomach,
  3. small intestines, and
  4. large intestines
122
Q

What is the main function of the digestive system?

A

To properly breakdown or digest the food that we eat so they can be absorbed through the intestines and utilized for food and energy for our cells. The digestive system also plays a major role in the removal of waste products from the body.

123
Q

Describe the process of digestion.

A

As food begins to travel through the digestive system, acid and digestive enzymes are added to the food to produce Chyme. The chyme passes through the pyloric sphincter to enter the small intestine. Digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver are added to the chyme. The process of digestion and absorption are completed in the small intestine. Wastes are carried from the small intestine into the large intestine. The wastes are removed to the rectum, where they are expelled through the anus.

124
Q

What are the primary structures of the reproductive system?

A
  1. testes and penis for males and ovaries,

2. fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina for the female

125
Q

What does the reproductive system produce?

A

Hormones needed for sexual reproduction.

126
Q

What is the primary structure of the urinary system?

A
  1. Kidneys,
  2. ureters,
  3. bladder, and
  4. urethra
127
Q

What is the main function of the urinary system?

A
  1. To remove chemical wastes from the body, and 2. help balance water and salt levels in the blood.
128
Q

What is the main function of the salivary glands?

A

To produce saliva.

129
Q

What is the main function of the esophagus?

A

To transport food to the stomach.

130
Q

What is the main function of the pancreas?

A

To secrete digestive enzymes and buffers.

131
Q

What is the main function of the small intestine?

A

To digest and absorb nutrients.

132
Q

What is the main function of the oral cavity?

A

To ingest, chew, and swallow food.

133
Q

What is the main function of the stomach?

A

To secrete acid and mix food to start digestion.

134
Q

What is the main function of the liver and gallbladder?

A

To produce and store bile.

135
Q

What is the main function of the colon?

A

Reabsorbed water and stores feces.

136
Q

What is the main function of the testes?

A

To produce sperm and secrete testosterone.

137
Q

What is the main function of the vas deferens?

A

To transport sperm to the euretha.

138
Q

What is the main function of the prostate gland?

A

To secrete fluid for semen.

139
Q

What is the main function of the penis?

A

To deliver semen during intercourse.

140
Q

What is the main function of the epididymis?

A

To store sperm.

141
Q

What is the main function of the seminal vesicles?

A

To secrete fluid for semen.

142
Q

What is the main function of the bulbourethral gland?

A

To secrete fluid for semen.

143
Q

What is the main function of the breast?

A

To produce milk.

144
Q

What is the main function of the fallopian tube?

A

To transport ovum to uterus.

145
Q

What is the main function of the vagina?

A

To receive semen during intercourse; to serve as the birth canal.

146
Q

What is the main function of the uterus?

A

It’s the site of development for the fetus?

147
Q

What is the main function of the ovary?

A

To produce ova and secretes estrogen and progesterone.

148
Q

What is the main function of the vulva?

A

To protect the vaginal orifice and urinary meatus.

149
Q

What is the main function of the kidney?

A

To filter blood and produce urine.

150
Q

What is the main function of the urinary bladder?

A

To store urine.

151
Q

What is the main function of the female urethra?

A

To transport urine to exterior.

152
Q

What is the main function of the ureter?

A

To transport urine into the bladder.

153
Q

What is the main function of the male urethra?

A

To transport urine to the exterior.

154
Q

What is the integumentary system?

A

It is the skin. It’s the largest organ of the body. It includes all layers of the skin, nails, hair, sweat glands, oil glands, and memory glands.

155
Q

What is the main function of the integumentary system?

A
  1. To protect the body from heat and cold, as well as from toxins in the environment, such as bacteria and other foreign organisms.
  2. It regulates body temperature incenses heat, cold, touch, pain, and pressure.
  3. It also regulates body fluids and chemical balance.
156
Q

What glands make up the endocrine system?

A
  1. thyroid,
  2. pituitary,
  3. adrenal,
  4. pancreas, and
  5. gonads.
157
Q

What are some of the processes the endocrine system regulates?

A
  1. Metabolism,
  2. physical size,
  3. strength,
  4. Hair growth,
  5. voice pitch, and
  6. reproduction.
158
Q

What is the primary function of the pineal gland?

A

To regulate circadian rhythm.

159
Q

It is the primary function of the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

A

To regulate metabolic rate and blood calcium levels.

160
Q

What is the main function of the adrenal glands?

A

To regulate water and electrolyte levels.

161
Q

What is the main function of the pancreas?

A

Regulates blood sugar levels.

162
Q

What is the main function of the pituitary gland?

A

Regulates many other endocrine glands.

163
Q

What is the primary function of the thymus gland?

A

Development of immune system.

164
Q

What is the primary function of the ovaries?

A

Regulates female reproductive system.

165
Q

What is the primary function of the testes?

A

Regulates male reproductive system.

166
Q

Where is insulin produced?

A

In the pancreas.

167
Q

What is insulin responsible for?

A

Regulation of glucose (sugar) levels in the blood.

168
Q

Where is epinephrine produced?

A

In the adrenal gland.

169
Q

Neonate covers what ages?

A

Birth to 28 days.

170
Q

Infant covers what ages?

A

Birth up to one-year-old.

171
Q

Toddler covers what ages?

A

1-3 years old.

172
Q

Preschooler covers what ages?

A

3-6 years old.

173
Q

School age covers what ages?

A

6-12 years old.

174
Q

Adolescent covers what ages?

A

12-18 years old.

175
Q

Early adulthood covers what ages?

A

18-40 years old.

176
Q

Middle adulthood covers what ages?

A

40-60 years old

177
Q

Late adulthood covers what ages?

A

60 and beyond

178
Q

1 kg equals how many pounds?

A

2.2 lbs.

179
Q

1 pound equals how many kilograms?

A

0.45 kg

180
Q

What two (2) things should you keep in mind when approaching newborns or infants?

A

They don’t like to be cold and they don’t like to be separated from their parents or primary caregivers.

181
Q

Which of the following best describes the anatomical position?
A standing upright with arms at the sides
B lying supine with arms outstretched and palms up
C standing with hands at the sides and palms forward
D lying prone with arms held straight out, palms down

A

C standing with hands at the sides and palms forward

182
Q
The navel is on the what aspect of the body?
A posterior
B anterior
C inferior
D superior
A

B anterior

183
Q
This spine can be felt (palpitated) on what aspect of the body?
A posterior
B anterior
C inferior
D superior
A

A posterior

184
Q
What imaginary line bisects the body into two halves (left and right):
A proximal break
B inferior aspect
C recumbent line
D midline
A

D midline

185
Q
Any location of the body that is closer to the midline is referred to as:
A medial
B recumbent
C lateral
D inferior
A

A medial

186
Q
The thumb is considered what to the palm?
A distal
B proximal
C lateral
D medial
A

C lateral

187
Q
A bruise that is on the anterior thigh just above-the-knee could be described as what to the knee?
A distal
B proximal
C lateral
D medial
A

B proximal

188
Q
The chin is what to the mouth?
A superior
B lateral
C inferior
D medial
A

C inferior

189
Q
The nose is what to the mouth?
A superior
B lateral
C inferior
D medial
A

A superior

190
Q
A patient that is found lying face down is said to be in the what position?
A recumbent
B lateral
C supine
D prone
A

D prone

191
Q
A patient with a suspected spine injury will likely be placed on the long spine board flat on his back or in a what position?
A recumbent
B lateral
C supine
D prone
A

C supine

192
Q
The recovery position is also known as the what position?
A lateral recumbent
B lateral
C superior
D stroke
A

A lateral recumbent

193
Q
The bladder is located in which body cavity?
A cranial
B thoracic
C abdominal
D pelvic
A

D pelvic

194
Q
The what cavity is also known as the thoracic cavity?
A pelvic
B chest
C abdominal
D cranial
A

B chest

195
Q
What separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?
A pelvic wall
B midline
C diaphragm
D stomach
A

C diaphragm

196
Q
All of the following can be found in the abdominal cavity except the:
A stomach
B liver
C spleen
D heart
A

D heart

197
Q
What cavity contains the liver and part of the large intestine?
A pelvic
B abdominal
C thoracic
D cranial
A

B abdominal

198
Q
What is found in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen?
A appendix
B stomach
C kidney
D liver
A

B stomach

199
Q
An infection of the appendix would most likely cause pain in what quadrant?
A upper right
B upper left
C lower right
D lower left
A

C lower right

200
Q
What is or are found in an area behind the abdominal cavity?
A kidneys
B bladder
C small intestine
D gallbladder
A

A kidneys