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Flashcards in Religion Deck (26)
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How did Durkheim define religion?

BELIEFS and PRACTICES that separate the PROFANE from the SACRED and UNITE its followers into a MORAL COMMUNITY.


What is the difference between SACRED and PROFANE?

Sacred was Durkheim's term for things set apart or forbidden that inspire fear, awe, reverence, or deep respect.

Profane was Durkheim's term for common aspects or elements of everyday life.


How do functionalists view religion in society?

Functionalists stress that religion is universal (is a part of all societies) because it meets human needs that are universal. Functionalists look at the functions and dysfunctions of religion in society.


What are some of the functions of religion, according to Functionalists?

1. Answers questions about the ultimate meaning of life;
2. Provides emotional comfort;
3. Promotes social solidarity;
4. Provides guidelines for everyday life;
5. Can act as a mechanism of social control;
6. Can help people adapt to new environments;
7. Can promote support for government;
8. Can promote social change


How do Symbolic Interactionists view religion in society?

Symbolic interactionists focus on the meanings that people give their religious experiences, especially how they use symbols.


What role do symbols play in religion?

Symbols provide identity and create social solidarity for their members. Durkheim said religions use symbols to represent what the group considers sacred and to separate the sacred from the profane.


Ceremonies or repetitive practices. In religion, such observances or rites are often intended to evoke a sense of awe of the sacred.



What is meany by cosmology?

Teachings or ideas that provide a unified picture of the world.


A sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God is called _______.

Religious Experience


What did Karl Marx say about religion in society?

Marx believed that the existence of God was impossible and said that "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed create, the sentiment of a heartless world....It is the opium of the people (masses)."


Which paradigm do Marx's viewed on religion reflect most closely?

The Conflict Paradigm (Perspective)


How do conflict theorists other than Marx view religion?

Conflict theorists stress that religion legitimates (justifies) social inequalities. In other words, religion teaches that the existing social arrangements represent what God desires., thereby decreasing the chances that the masses (people) will rise up against the existing social order. Thus, they claim religion is a mechanism of social control.


Which THREE religions are the largest in the world, by number of followers?

1. Christianity (with 2.25 billion followers)
2. Islam (with 1.55 billion followers)
3. Hinduism (with 940 million followers)


Which religion (or denomination) is most prevalent in the Southern region of the US?

Baptist (or Southern Baptists)


Which protestant denomination is common in the upper Midwest, in states like Minnesota and the Dakotas?



Which religion is dominant in much of the Northeast?

Roman Catholic


What are the characteristics of a cult?

1. New Religion
2. Few Followers
3. Teachings and practices that put it at odds with the dominant culture and religion.
4. Often has a charismatic leader.


An attempt to win converts to a religion.



A religious group that is so integrated into the dominant culture that it is difficult to tell where the one begins and the other leaves off. This is also called a state religion.



What are the characteristics of a sect?

1. Larger than a cult
2. Still feels substantial hostility from and toward society


What does the word "denomination" mean?

A "brand name" within a major religion. Examples include Methodist, Baptist, Episcopal, etc....


We looked at data on social class and religious affiliation in the US. Which 3 religious affiliations or groups showed the highest levels of family income, education and occupational prestige?

1. Jewish
2. Mormon
3. Episcopal


We looked at data on social class and religious affiliation in the US. Which 3 religious affiliations or groups showed the lowest levels of family income, education, and occupational prestige?

1. Jehovah's Witness
2. Southern Baptist
3. Assembly of God


Which religious groups or denominations are showing the largest percentage gains in the US in recent years?

1. Mormons
2. Jehovah;s Witnesses
3. Assemblies of God
4. Roman Catholic
5. Churches of Christ
6. Baptists


Which religious groups or denominations are showing the largest percentage losses in the US in recent years?

1. Greek Orthodox
2. United Churches of Christ
3. Presbyterians
4. Episcopalians
5. Lutherans
6. United Methodists


What percentage of Americans claimed membership in a church or synagogue in 1776? What about now?

1776 = 17%

Now = 62%