Chapter 06: Groups and Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 06: Groups and Organization Deck (34):
1

aggregate

a collection of people who exist in the same place at the same time, but who don’t
interact or share a sense of identity

2

authoritarian leader

a leader who issues orders and assigns tasks

3

bureaucracies

are formal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division
of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality

4

category

people who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way

5

clear division of labor

refers to the fact that each individual in a bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform

6

coercive organizations

are organizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or a mental hospital

7

conformity

the extent to which an individual complies with group or societal norms

8

democratic leader

a leader who encourages group participation and consensus-building before
moving into action

9

dyad

a two-member group

10

explicit rules

the types of rules in a bureaucracy; rules that are outlined, recorded, and
standardized

11

expressive function

a group function that serves an emotional need

12

expressive leader

a leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone’s emotional wellbeing

13

formal organizations

large, impersonal organizations

14

generalizability

the amount that information from a specific example can be generalized to apply to the overall population

15

group

any collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who share some
sense of aligned identity

16

hierarchy of authority

a clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy

17

Iron Rule of Oligarchy

the theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather than through collaboration

18

impersonality

the removal of personal feelings from a professional situation

19

in-group

a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identity

20

instrumental function

being oriented toward a task or goal

21

instrumental leader

a leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasks

22

laissez-faire leader

a hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions

23

leadership function

the main focus or goal of a leader

24

leadership style

the style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit action from group members

25

McDonaldization

the increasing presence of the fast food business model in common social institutions

26

meritocracy

a bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on merit—proven and
documented skills

27

normative or voluntary organizations

organizations that people join to pursue shared interests
or because they provide some intangible rewards

28

out-group

a group that an individual is not a member of, and may even compete with

29

primary groups

small, informal groups of people who are closest to us

30

reference groups

groups to which an individual compares herself

31

secondary groups

larger and more impersonal groups that are task-focused and time limited

32

total institution

an organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total
resocialization occurs

33

triad

a three-member group

34

utilitarian organizations

organizations that are joined to fill a specific material need