Chapter 02: Sociological Research Flashcards Preview

College Sociology > Chapter 02: Sociological Research > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 02: Sociological Research Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

case study

in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

2

code of ethics

a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to
foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology

3

content analysis

applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand

4

control group

an experimental group that is not exposed to the independent variable

5

correlation

when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does
not necessarily indicate causation

6

dependent variables

changed by other variables

7

empirical evidence

evidence corroborated by direct experience and/or observation

8

ethnography

observing a complete social setting and all that it entails

9

experiment

the testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions

10

field research

gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a
survey

11

Hawthorne effect

when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher

12

hypothesis

an educated guess with predicted outcomes about the relationship between two or
more variables

13

independent variables

cause changes in dependent variables

14

interpretive framework

a sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis
testing

15

interview

a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject

16

literature review

a scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research

17

nonreactive research

using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and
will not alter or influence people’s behaviors

18

operational definitions

specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

19

participant observation

when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an “insider” perspective

20

population

a defined group serving as the subject of a study

21

primary data

data that are collected directly from firsthand experience

22

qualitative data

comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting

23

quantitative data

represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted

24

random sample

a study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population

25

reliability

a measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced

26

research design

a detailed, systematic method for conducting research and obtaining data

27

sample

a small, manageable number of subjects that represents the population

28

scientific method

an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question,researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and
drawing conclusions

29

secondary data analysis

using data collected by others but applying new interpretations

30

surveys

collect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and
opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire