Chapter 20: Population, Urbanization and the Environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20: Population, Urbanization and the Environment Deck (28)
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1

cancer cluster

a geographic area with high levels of cancer within its population

2

carrying capacity

how many people can live in a given area considering the amount of available
resources

3

climate change

long-term shifts in temperature and climate due to human activity

4

concentric zone model

a model of human ecology that views cities as a series of circular rings or zones

5

cornucopian theory

theory which asserts that human ingenuity will rise to the challenge of providing adequate resources for a growing population

6

demographic transition theory

theory that describes four stages of population growth, following patterns that connect birth and death rates with stages of industrial development

7

demography

the study of population

8

e-waste

the disposal of broken, obsolete, and worn-out electronics

9

environmental racism

the way economically and socially disadvantaged communities are burdened with a disproportionate share of environmental hazards

10

environmental sociology

the sociological subfield that addresses the relationship between humans and the environment

11

exurbs

communities that arise farther out than the suburbs and are typically populated by residents of high socioeconomic status

12

fertility rate

a measure noting the actual number of children born

13

gentrification

when upper- and middle-class residents enter certain city areas or communities that have been historically less affluent

14

human ecology

a functional perspective that looks at the relationship between people and their built and natural environment

15

Malthusian theory

theory which asserts that population is controlled through positive checks (war, famine, disease) and preventative checks (measures to reduce fertility)

16

megalopolis

a large urban corridor that encompasses several cities and their surrounding suburbs and exurbs

17

metropolis

the area that includes a city and its suburbs and exurbs

18

mortality rate

a measure of the number of people who die

19

NIMBY

“Not in My Back Yard,” describing the tendency of people to protest poor environmental practices when those practices will impact them directly

20

pollution

when contaminants are introduced into an environment at levels that are damaging

21

population composition

a snapshot of the demographic profile of a population based on fertility, mortality, and migration rates

22

population pyramid

graphic representation that depicts population distribution according to age and sex

23

sex ratio

the ratio of men to women in a given population

24

suburbs

the communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute

25

urban sociology

the subfield of sociology that focuses on the study of urbanization

26

urbanization

the study of the social, political, and economic relationships of cities

27

white flight

the migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas toward the suburbs

28

zero population growth

a theoretical goal in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration