Flashcards in Reproductive Toxicants and Induced Abortions Deck (48):
What 4 plant teratogens do we worry about in the cow?
What 4 abortive plants do we worry about in the cow?
What 3 plant substances cause infertility in the cow?
When do we see poison hemlock come out?
What does poison hemlock cause in calves?
"Crooked calf syndrome"
When during gestation does the dam have to ingest poison hemlock for it to have its teratogenic effect on the fetus?
Between 50-75 days
What are the 2 substances found in lupines that are teratogenic?
When during gestation does the dam have to ingest lupines for it to have its teratogenic effect on the fetus?
Between 40-70 days.
What is interesting of lupines in small ruminants?
It's not teratogenic in small ruminants.
How does tobacco affect the fetus?
Arthrogryposis of the forelimbs and curvature of the spine.
When during gestation does the dam have to ingest tobacco for it to have its teratogenic effect on the fetus?
Between 50-75 days.
What is the toxin in locoweed?
"Ron Swanson goes loco"
What 3 things can locoweed cause?
What toxic plant can animals get "hooked" on?
How long do animals need to consume locoweed before they get "hooked" on it?
What plant causes the most economic loss?
What s the toxin in ponderosa pine?
What is the abortion rate for consumption of ponderosa pine?
Up to 50%
How long does a dam have to eat ponderosa pine for it to have it's abortive effect?
Greater than 3 days.
What can be done to reduce ingestion of ponderosa pine?
Feeding corn silage
What are the 4 toxins produces by broomweed or snakeweed?
Oxygenated flavonol methy esters
What 2 things does consumption of broomweed or snakeweed cause?
Retained fetal membranes
When do you see broomweed and snakeweed?
In the spring.
What produces the toxin associated with fescue?
A fungus (neotyphodium coenophialum)
What is the toxin associated with fesuce?
What does ergovaline cause?
What is "Summer Slump" in cattle, and what causes it?
Decreased reproduction/ infertility and decreased milk caused by ergovaline.
What 5 plants accumulate Nitrates?
When do we see nitrates especially high?
During drought periods
What 3 things do we see when the dam ingests nitrates?
Fetal hypoxia (d/t methemoglobinemia)
Late gestation abortions
How do you diagnose nitrates as the cause of abortion?
Test ocular fluid of aborted fetuses.
What are 5 reasons to induce abortion in cattle?
Pregnancy in feedlot heifer
What are the 2 dropsical conditions?
What is hydrallantois?
Abnormal accumulation of allantoic fluid during 5-20 day period of last trimester.
Which condition is more common, hydrallantois or hydramnios?
What are the 3 steps to treating a dropsical condition?
Slow drainage of fluid (over 24 hours)
What is the progesterone source in the cow for the first 150 days?
What is the progesterone source in the cow between 150 and 250 days?
The placenta acts as an additional source.
What happens to the source of progesterone in the cow in the final month of pregnancy?
Placental origin declines while luteal P4 continues.
What are the 2 general drugs we use to induce abortion in the cow?
Prostaglandins (Estrumate, Lutalyse)
How does PGF2a work to induce abortion?
Acts to cause luteolysis.
NOTE: Has no effect on placental P4 production
How do corticosteroids workto induce abortion?
Reduce placental P4 production
What do you need to know to help pick the drugs that you will use to induce abortion?
The stage of gestation.
NOTE: If you don't know the stage of gestation, you can just use both PGF2a and corticosteroids.
What is the protocol for abortion in a cow that is between 5-150 days gestation?
Single injection of PGF2a
What is the protocol for abortion in a cow that is between 150 and 240 days gestation?
Remove ovarian AND placental sources of P4 with a combo of 25mg each of PGF2a and corticosteroids.
Abortion after how many days leads to retained fetal membranes in 80% of cows treated?
What are 3 indications for inducing abortion in a cow?
Severe udder edema
Abnormal pregnancy (eg. hydrops)