Respiratory Disorders Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step Two > Respiratory Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Disorders Deck (112)
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61

diagnosis and treatment: anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

goodpasture's syndrome
plasmapheresis, steroids, additional immunosuppressive agents

62

smoker with rapid onset JVD, facial swelling, and altered mental status

superior vena cava syndrome

63

pathologies with decreased DLCO (decreased diffusion capacity at alveoli-arterial interface)

ARDS (alveoli filled with fluid)
emphysema (fibrotic destruction of alveoli)

64

diagnostic distinction between bronchitis and emphysema

bronchitis: normal DLCO
emphysema: decreased DLCO (fibrotic destruction of alveoli)

65

easier way to determine oxygen diffusion at alveolar-arterial interface instead of measuring DLCO

A-a gradient

66

vaccines for patients with COPD

influenza vaccine annually
pneumococcal vaccine every 5 years
haemophilus influenza vaccine once

67

what kind of oxygen do you give patients with COPD

low-flow via nasal cannula
(do not want to reduce hypoxic drive)

68

genetic disorders associated wit bronchiectasis

cystic fibrosis, kartagener's syndrome

69

how to monitor heparin dosage after PE

titrate PTT to 1.5-2.5 times normal

70

pulmonary embolism treatment

heparin x 5 days, cross over to warfarin x 3-6 months

71

criteria for labeling pleural fluid as exudative

pleural LDH > 0.6 serum LDH
pleural protein > 0.5 serum protein

72

drug of choice for inpatient management of pneumonia

levofloxain, moxifloxacin

for nosocomial penumonia, add vancomycin to cover MRSA

73

drug of choice for outpatient management of pneumonia

azithromycin, doxycycline

74

test to differentiate between asthma and COPD

FEV1 with and without bronchodilator
DLCO

75

which test on pleural fluid is most helpful in determining need for chest tube placement in parapneumonic effusion

pH: low pH (< 60 also is an indication for thoracostomy

76

aspirin sensitivity syndrome

pseudo-allergic reaction caused by prostaglandin/leukotriene imbalance in susceptible individuals

treatment: avoid NSAIDs and use leukotriene receptor antagonists

77

mobile cavitary mass in lung with intermittent hemoptysis

aspergillosis

78

physical exam in lung consolidation

bronchial breath sounds (full inspiration and expiration), dullness to percusion, and increased fremitus

bronchial breath sounds have a full expiratory phase

79

physical exam in pleural effusion

decreased breath sounds, dullness to percussion, decreased fremitus and transmitted airway sounds

80

physical exam in emphysema

hyper-resonant to percussion, breath sounds are vesicular, intensity of sound is decreased, wheezing may be present

81

physical exam in pneumothorax

hyper-resonance on percussion, decreased breath sounds

82

physical exam in interstitial lung disease

lungs are resonant on percussion, vesicular breath sounds, fine crackles heard at the end of inspiration

83

normal A-a gradient

5-15 mmHg

84

how to calculate PAO2 from PaCO2

PAO2 = 150 mmHg - (1.2)PaCO2

85

most common bacterial cause of bronchitis in nonsmokers

mycoplasma pneumoniae

86

most common cause of bronchitis in smokers

streptococcus pneumonia
haemophilus influenzae

87

bacterial pneumonia associated with abscess formation

staphylococcus aureus

88

mechanism of aspiration pneumonia

impaired gag reflex

89

pneumonia associated with young adults

mycoplasma pneumoniae

90

pneumonia associated cold-agglutinin test

mycoplasma pneumoniae